Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells given intravenously reduce stroke damage

27.09.2004


Stem cells taken from umbilical cord blood, then given intravenously along with a drug known to temporarily breach the brain’s protective barrier, can dramatically reduce stroke size and damage, Medical College of Georgia and University of South Florida researchers say.

"What we found was interesting, phenomenal really," says Dr. Cesario V. Borlongan, neuroscientist and lead author of the study published in the October issue of the American Heart Association journal, Stroke.

Researchers first gave the drug, mannitol, to provide temporary passage through the blood-brain barrier then transfused human umbilical cord blood cells into a stroke animal model. When used in the first hours and days following a stroke, stroke size decreased by 40 percent and resulting disability was significantly reduced. "We have two potential routes of delivery, intravenously through the jugular vein or directly transplanting the cells into the brain," says Dr. Borlongan. Initial studies comparing the two approaches showed the intravenous approach ineffective until researchers added mannitol.



"Intravenous delivery of (human umbilical cord blood cells) poses an efficient and non-invasive cell therapy for (central nervous system) disorders characterized by a narrow therapeutic window," the researchers write. "A multi-drug treatment for stroke may be realized via a cell-based therapy that involves routine clinical IV infusion of stem/progenitor cells allowing the biological release of a cocktail of trophic factors into the brain."

Although no evidence could be found of the low-dose umbilical cord blood stem cells themselves in the brain three days after the treatment, evidence of neuroprotection was clear, Dr. Borlongan says. "The critical factors we have seen elevated in this stroke animal model are the neurotrophic factors."

"This is an important finding because it shows that umbilical cord blood cells do not have to become new brain cells to protect the brain," says Dr. Paul R. Sanberg, neuroscientist at the University of South Florida and a co-author on the study. Human umbilical cord blood stem cells used for the study were obtained from Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc., in Tampa, Fla., a USF spin-off company researching clinical applications for cord blood cells.

An article in the same issue of Stroke by the USF researchers led by Dr. Alison Willing, neuroscientist, shows that 10 times the number of stem cells or more would be needed to produce similar results if cells were given intravenously without any help crossing the blood-brain barrier.

The MCG-led study used 200,000 umbilical cord blood cells and a low dose of mannitol, a sugar alcohol and diuretic whose uses include helping chemotherapeutic agents reach the brain. The USF study showed a dose-response relationship with significant recovery in behavioral performance when 1 million or more cells were given, Drs. Willing and Sanberg and their colleagues report.

"The advances we are seeing here are with mannitol, you can deliver a smaller number of cells and it can protect against stroke," Dr. Borlongan says. "It can reduce the size of infarction; it can lead to behavioral improvement," an important implication for clinical applications because stem cells are difficult to harvest. By using mannitol or similar drugs, it may be possible to treat stroke patients in the future with cells from only a few umbilical cords, adds Dr. Sanberg.

The Stroke paper also explored how stem cells provide neuroprotection. The researchers speculated it was by providing the large influx of nourishing neurotrophic factors secreted by the stem cells. To test that theory, they looked at what happened when they used antibodies that negated some of the factors. "When we blocked the neurotrophic factors, it blocked the positive effect," Dr. Borlongan says.

The study also looked at mannitol as a therapy because of previous reports it reduces cerebral swelling and stroke damage. Researchers found that at the same low dose used to accompany the stem cells, mannitol alone was ineffective. "The dosage we are using is probably 10 times lower than the one showing mannitol itself to be protective," Dr. Borlongan says. But those higher doses come with higher risks as tight cell junctions that prevent many molecules from reaching the brain relax for longer periods, leaving the brain susceptible to problems such as infection. Drs. Borlongan and Willing are consultants and Dr. Sanberg is cofounder of Saneron CCEL Therapeutics, Inc.

Toni Baker | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mcg.edu
http://www.usf.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds
26.05.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system
26.05.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>