Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New fossil sheds light on old mystery

24.09.2004


Scientists from IVPP, Field Museum and University of Chicago describe a new Chinese reptile from the Triassic and propose a unique feeding method



The well-preserved fossil of a newly discovered reptile species may explain the function of the extremely long neck for which some protorosaurs are known – a feature that has puzzled scientists for decades. The Protorosauria is an order of diverse predatory reptiles that lived as far back as 280 million years ago. Scientists have never been able to figure out the function of the extremely long neck that characterizes some species of this group, including Tanystropheus longobardicus, which was discovered in the 1850s.

About twice as long as its trunk, Tanystropheus’ neck has 12 vertebrae along which extend elongated cervical ribs. Years ago, scientists concluded that the long, stiff neck was more or less a consequence of growth patterns rather than a specific functional adaptation. The new species of protorosaur, however, provides additional clues and suggests that the long neck in these animals may have been part of a unique and very effective method for capturing prey in water.


Dinocephalosaurus orientalis, which means "terrible-headed lizard from the Orient," was recently discovered in southern China. It has a neck made up of 25 vertebrae, again with elongated cervical ribs extending along them. In an embargoed article to be published in Science on September 24, 2004, the authors describe how the neck may have been used to capture prey.

"This is important research because we have finally explained the functional purpose of this strange, long neck," said Olivier Rieppel, PhD, a co-author of the Science paper and chair of geology and curator of fossil amphibians and reptiles at Chicago’s Field Museum. "It allowed an almost perfect strike at prey, which usually consisted of elusive fish and squid."

Prey in water is slippery, and any movement toward it not only alerts the prey of an attack but also creates a pressure wave that could push the prey away. Fish and some turtles combat these factors with suction feeding, i.e., pulling the prey into their months by rapidly expanding the mouth cavity.

Crocodiles and alligators use a different approach. They catch prey with their flat head and pincer jaws, which allow them (when feeding in water) to strike laterally, cutting through the water while minimizing the force that pushes the prey away.

Dinocephalosaurus apparently took yet another approach. When it thrust its head forward to capture prey, the ribs along its neck would splay outward. This would increase the diameter of the esophagus, creating a suction force that would swallow the pressure wave created by the lunging head, along with the prey.

"The unusual neck morphology of Dinocephalosaurus would have allowed it to suction feed, a feeding mode previously unknown for fossil aquatic reptiles," said Michael LaBarbera, PhD, professor of organismal biology and anatomy at the University of Chicago. "But suction feeding in Dinocephalosaurus was different from suction feeding in any other animal. Rather than expand the volume of its mouth to suck in prey, Dinocephalosaurus expanded the volume of its throat, in many ways a more effective approach."

In addition, the long neck allowed Dinocephalosaurus to draw near its prey stealthily so it would have less of a chance of being detected. "To a fish in murky water, Dinocephalosaurus’ head would have initially looked like another animal its own size, but by the time the fish was able to see Dinocephalosaurus’ body, it would already have been lunch," Dr. LaBarbera said.

"Dinocephalosaurus sheds new light on the evolution of protorosaurs and the functional morphology of these long-necked marine reptiles," said Chun Li, lead author and assistant research fellow at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.

"When Tanystropheus, the first long-necked protorosaur to be found, was discovered in Europe in the 1850s it raised so many questions that it was called a ’biomechanical nightmare,’ " Chun added. "And it generated fiery discussion among scientists as recently as the 1980s." Dinocephalosaurus is 230 million years old and dates from the Triassic. It has 25 cervical vertebrae to Tanystropheus’ 12, which might have made its neck a little more flexible. "These two species are not very closely related, which demonstrates that this strange, long neck evolved twice within the group of protorosaurs," Dr. Rieppel said.

Dinocephalosaurus’ neck measures 1.7 meters, while its trunk is less than 1 meter long. Some of its cervical ribs, which are connected to neck vertebrae, span several intervertebral joints. The ribs increase in length from the front of the neck to the back of the neck, bridging more joints near the base of the neck than near the head. Unlike most protorosaurs, Dinocephalosaurus was fully aquatic, although it might have laid its eggs on land.

Greg Borzo | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.fieldmuseum.org
http://www.uchospitals.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How the insulin receptor works
19.02.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
16.02.2018 | Florida Museum of Natural History

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>