Biochemists have pinpointed how a flaw in DNA that is central to mutations in cancer and aging fools the cellular enzyme that copies DNA. Their finding explains how oxidative DNA damage -- a process long believed to underlie cancers and aging -- can create permanent genetic damage.
The Duke University Medical Center researchers’ findings were published online Aug. 22, 2004, by the journal Nature. The scientists were led by Associate Professor of Biochemistry Lorena Beese, Ph.D., and the paper’s lead author was Gerald Hsu, a Duke M.D./Ph.D. student. The other co-authors are Thomas Carell and Matthias Ober of Ludwig Maximillians University in Germany. Their research was supported mainly by the National Cancer Institute.
DNA is a double stranded molecule shaped like a spiral staircase. The two strands of the spiral are linked by sequences of molecular subunits, or bases, called nucleotides. The four nucleotides -- guanine, cytosine, adenine and thymine -- naturally complement one another like puzzle pieces. In normal DNA, a guanine matches with a cytosine, and an adenine with a thymine. However, stray reactive oxidizing molecules in the cell can alter guanine to become an "8-oxoguanine" that can lead to a mismatch.
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The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
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With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
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