Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Medical Test on CD Gets Good Results, Fast

16.07.2004


Ohio State University engineers and their colleagues have successfully automated a particular medical test on a compact disc (CD) for the first time -- and in a fraction of the normal time required using conventional equipment.



The ELISA biochemical test -- one of the most widely used clinical, food safety, and environmental tests -- normally takes hours or even days to perform manually. Using a specially designed CD, engineers performed the test automatically, and in only one hour.

The patent-pending technology involves mixing chemicals inside tiny wells carved into the CD surface. The spinning of the CD activates the tests.


In a recent issue of the journal Analytical Chemistry, the engineers report that the CD successfully detected a sample of rat antibody -- a standard laboratory test -- using only one-tenth the usual amount of chemicals.

This first demonstration paves the way for CDs to be used to quickly detect food-borne pathogens and toxins, said L. James Lee, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio State. The same technology could one day test for human maladies such as cancer and HIV, using a very small cell sample or a single drop of blood.

Lee estimated that the first commercial application of the concept is at least two years away. “This study shows that the technology is very promising, but there are challenges to overcome,” he said. “We have been working on designing special valves and other features inside the CD, and better techniques for controlling the chemical reactions.”

“When we work on the micro-scale, we can perform tests faster and using less material, but the test also becomes very sensitive,” he explained. As chemicals flow through the narrow channels and reservoirs carved in the CD, interactions between individual molecules become very important, and these can affect the test results.

ELISA, short for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, is normally conducted in much larger reservoirs inside a microtiter plate -- a palm-sized plastic grid that resembles an ice cube tray.

Microtiter plates are standard equipment in chemical laboratories, and ELISA testing is a $10-billion-per-year industry. It is the most common test for HIV. Still, the test is tedious and labor-intensive, in part because of the difficulty in mixing chemicals thoroughly enough to get consistent results.

“Everyone working in the life sciences labs would fall in love with this revolutionary CD system for ELISA because it’s easier, faster and cheaper to use,” said Shang-Tian Yang, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio State and collaborator on the project. Yang and Lee are founding a company to commercialize the CD technology. Until then, product development is being handled by Bioprocessing Innovative Company, Inc., a company in which Yang is a part owner.

Lee and Yang are working with Marc Madou, formerly of Ohio State and now a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California at Irvine. Ohio State graduate student Shengnian Wang and former graduate students Siyi Lai and Jun Luo also participated in the project.

While other researchers have successfully conducted ELISA testing in micro-arrays such as on a computer chip, these tests still had to be conducted manually, step-by-step. The Ohio State CD performs all the steps necessary for ELISA automatically.

The special CD looks like any other on the shiny side that stores data; that is the side that is read by a laser in a computer or CD player. But the side that normally carries the disk label instead carries the tiny testing channels arranged like the spokes of a wheel.

As the CD spins, centrifugal force pushes liquid samples from the inner channels out to the edge, where it mixes with tiny pools of chemicals for testing. Valves control which chemicals mix, and when.

Once developed, the CD could do something else that has never been done before: merge medical information and diagnostic equipment in one platform. A patient’s records and test samples could be stored on one disc.

The technology will have to jump several hurdles, including evaluation by the Food and Drug Administration, before that can happen, Lee said. He sees water quality testing and food testing as two applications that could happen in the shorter term.

For now, the engineers will work on optimizing the channel design for different kinds of tests. “Fortunately, once we have found a robust design, we’ll only need to fine tune for each different assay, instead of inventing a totally new game again and again,” Yang said.

This research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation, and by Ohio Governor Bob Taft’s Third Frontier program, which was designed to develop Ohio as a center for high-tech industry and create jobs across the state.

| newswise
Further information:
http://www.osu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Two Group A Streptococcus genes linked to 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections
25.09.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fraunhofer ISE Pushes World Record for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells to 22.3 Percent

25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance

25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

An international team of physicists a coherent amplification effect in laser excited dielectrics

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>