Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Jefferson Researchers Develop Microchip to Track Genetic Signature of Cancer and Normal Tissue

22.06.2004


MicroRNAs (miRNAs), tiny pieces of genetic material that can serve as stop signs for gene expression and protein synthesis, are thought to be important in the development of cancer. Now, researchers at Jefferson Medical College and the Kimmel Cancer Center of Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia have developed a technique that allows them to find which miRNA genes are expressed – and how – in both cancerous and normal tissue.


Scientists, led by Carlo Croce, M.D., director of Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center and professor of microbiology and immunology at Jefferson Medical College, have developed a microarray chip onto which they were able to put all the known miRNA genes in both human and mouse. They found that each tissue they tested had its own characteristic pattern of miRNA gene expression.

The work might enable scientists to gain a better understanding of the roles of miRNAs in cancer and provide targets for future drug development. They reported their findings June 21, 2004 online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dr. Croce explains that miRNAs are thought to play important roles in regulating gene expression during development and cell differentiation. MiRNAs inhibit the function of their targets, typically messenger RNA, which is involved in gene expression. They either degrade the messenger RNA or block its translation. Cells in organisms from yeast to mammals make interfering RNA to shut off gene expression in development.



Dr. Croce and his colleagues had previously shown that deletions in miRNA genes were involved in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the most common adult leukemia in the Western world. They also had reported that human miRNA genes are frequently located in “fragile” areas of the genome that are vulnerable to mutation. “We think the miRNA genes are in fact involved in many human cancers,” he says.

“As a result, we have a number of markers that allow us to characterize specific tissue in specific cells,” Dr. Croce says. “Now the chip allows us to compare normal tissue to malignant tissue.

“This kind of approach will give us important clues about the gene regulation in a number of cells in normal and cancer tissue,” he says. “It opens new avenues for treatment because these miRNA genes are so small, they can get into cells and be used as drugs. Characterizing their targets might help in understanding cancer phenotypes.”

MiRNA genes can function differently. Take miR-16, for example, which is one of the miRNA genes Dr. Croce has studied in CLL. It functions as a tumor suppressor, and probably some of its targets are oncogenes, he says. Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that protect against the development of cancer. Oncogenes, on the other hand, promote excessive cell growth, the hallmark of cancer.

“If the miR is expressed at a high level, however, the RNA level of the targets would be low and the expression of the oncogene would be low,” he says. Conversely, “knocking out” the miR gene would mean the expression of the oncogene would be high.

“MiRNAs are a new mechanism involved in malignant transformation,” he says. “I think it will be found to be a very generalized mechanism and provide a lot of opportunities for treatment.

“The chip is an easy way to test for miRNA alterations,” he says. “When you look at a cancer, the chip will tell you which miRNAs are in fact there and which are not. Then you can study the targets and figure out their role in cancer.

“The next step is to continue to find out how these genes are regulated and what they regulate – their targets and their roles in cancers.”

Steven Benowitz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jefferson.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery
20.01.2017 | GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH

nachricht Seeking structure with metagenome sequences
20.01.2017 | DOE/Joint Genome Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>