Scientists have uncovered new evidence about a critical cellular pathway that makes tumor blood vessels resistant to radiation therapy. The research, published in the May issue of Cancer Cell, may have significant clinical applications, as a better understanding of this mechanism may open new avenues for enhancing the effectiveness of radiation therapy.
Tumor growth and survival is completely dependant upon having an adequate blood supply. In fact, the sensitivity of a tumors blood vessels to radiation therapy is a major determinant of how successful the treatment will be. Recent studies have shown, however, that tumors can respond to radiation by secreting factors that promote the survival of blood vessel cells. Dr. Mark W. Dewhirst and colleagues from Duke University Medical Center have investigated the activation of this protective response and whether the process can be successfully inhibited, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of radiation therapy. The investigators focused on a molecule called hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) that is known to stimulate the production of factors called cytokines that are related to tumor metabolism, growth, and blood vessel formation.
They found that HIF-1 levels were increased in tumors after radiation treatment, and that HIF-1-regulated cytokines decreased the sensitivity of blood vessels to radiation. Based on this knowledge, the investigators demonstrated that administration of low doses of a HIF-1 inhibitor in tumor-bearing mice dramatically enhanced the effectiveness of radiation therapy by destroying tumor blood vessels without having an impact on normal vessels.
Heidi Hardman | EurekAlert!
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University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event
On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
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