Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Track Protein Linked to Neurological Movement Disorder

18.05.2004


A team led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis is one step closer to understanding the function of a protein linked to an inherited form of the movement disorder dystonia.



The protein, torsinA, is defective in patients with DYT1 dystonia, an inherited condition that causes uncontrollable movements in the limbs and torso. Learning what torsinA does could be an important step toward developing a treatment for the disorder.

“The hope is that understanding as many forms of dystonia as we can will give us some insight into how we might treat movement disorders generally,” says Phyllis I. Hanson, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of cell biology and physiology and senior investigator for the study. “Any new insights might also be helpful for understanding secondary dystonias. These are conditions in which dystonia is a complication of another disorder, such as Parkinson’s disease.”


The study is available in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and will appear in the May 18 print edition of the journal.

According to the Dystonia Research Foundation, approximately 300,000 Americans have some form of primary dystonia. Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that force certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements or postures. Dystonia can affect any part of the body including the arms and legs, trunk, neck, eyelids, face or vocal cords. DYT1 dystonia affects about 10,000 Americans.

Co-author Xandra Breakefield, Ph.D., professor of neurology at Harvard University, led the team that identified the gene for DYT1 dystonia in 1997. Researchers later found the gene makes torsinA. Study of torsinA’s structure suggested it belongs to a family of proteins known as AAA+ ATPase proteins. This protein family typically helps cells recycle resources by breaking down assemblies of other proteins and molecules into their components, like disassembling a car for reuse of its parts.

Hanson, who studies behavior of cell membranes, previously found torsinA in the endoplasmic reticulum, a large compartment that has branches that pass through various regions of the cell.
For the new study, she engineered defective copies of the torsinA gene and inserted them into cultured mammalian cells. Hanson designed one of the defective genes to make a form of torsinA that would stick permanently to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a compound cells use to move energy around. Breaking down ATP normally provides torsinA with a great deal of energy, probably enabling it to perform its main job. Hanson hoped making torsinA stick to ATP would trap it at its normal site of action, revealing where in the cell the protein usually works.

The TorsinA that was stuck to ATP moved into the nuclear envelope, the portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that surrounds the nucleus, the central compartment of the cell where DNA is kept.

“Based on what’s known about other proteins like torsinA, we figure this means torsinA is probably taking something apart in the nuclear envelope,” Hanson says. “The questions are: What is it taking apart and how is that important for the normal structure and function of the nuclear envelope? And how is that activity perturbed by the genetic mutation responsible for DYT1 dystonia?”

Defects in other proteins found in the nuclear envelope recently have been linked to several diseases, including a form of muscular dystrophy and a neuropathy.

“Like any other research, this finding has its caveats,” Hanson says. “But we think that there’s likely to be some important function that torsinA performs in the nuclear envelope.”

Hanson plans further studies to determine torsinA’s function.
###
Naismith TV, Heuser JE, Breakefield XO, Hanson PI. TorsinA in the nuclear envelope. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, May 18, 2004.

Funding from the National Institutes of Health, the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, the McKnight Foundation and the Jack Fasciana Fund for Support of Dystonia Research.

The full-time and volunteer faculty of Washington University School of Medicine are the physicians and surgeons of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked second in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Michael C. Purdy | WUSTL
Further information:
http://aladdin.wustl.edu/medadmin/PAnews.nsf/news/603ABE927E2ACF2B86256E97005509C9?OpenDocument

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>