Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Carnegie Mellon U. conducts first comprehensive proteomic analysis of developing animal

31.03.2004


First comprehensive proteomic analysis of how proteins change as an animal develops



Carnegie Mellon University scientists have performed the first comprehensive proteome analysis of protein changes that occur in a developing animal, making surprising findings that could require scientists to revise standard thinking about how proteins orchestrate critical steps in embryonic development.

Their findings could one day provide a sensitive way to measure how drugs or environmental chemicals affect specific protein networks and harm development.


The research, reported online (http://dev.biologists.org/content/vol131/issue3/) and in the February 1 issue of Development, found that specific cells set to change shape during a key growth step are actually poised for their transformation far in advance and that many types of proteins are involved.

"Our findings counter long-held assumptions that a limited number of proteins are responsible for this step of development and that they become active right before the cells change shape," said Jonathan Minden, principal investigator on the study and associate professor of biological sciences at Carnegie Mellon University.

The researchers studied the complete proteome, or all the proteins, within embryos of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. They compared proteomes at three stages of fruitfly development to witness changes that occurred as some cells folded into the body to form structures including the nerves, immune system and muscles. This process, called gastrulation, is a critical growth step for virtually every animal, from insects to humans.

During gastrulation, in a process called ventral furrow formation, column-shaped cells along the underside of the fruitfly become cone-shaped, which drives them to the interior or the embryo.

In their proteomic analysis, the Carnegie Mellon scientists found changes in the abundance of many types of proteins well before gastrulation. These included proteins that control metabolism, protein breakdown, protein production and the formation of the cell’s interior scaffolding, known as the cytoskeleton. Previous genetic studies have yielded limited information about the genes controlling the signaling pathway that specifies the ventral furrow cells. Moreover, these studies have failed to provide a coordinated framework for how the changes take place in concert.

To test that the protein changes they saw actually were critical to the formation of the ventral furrow, Minden and his colleagues used a technique called RNA interference to greatly decrease the expression of genes for altered proteins in the fruitfly embryos. They found that that the embryos failed to form ventral furrows.

"Our study demonstrates that the formation of the ventral furrow is a complex process that encompasses nearly all cellular processes," said Minden.

The scientists also found that only one protein was activated at the exact moment when cells changed shape. This protein is part of a complex cellular machine called the proteosome, which is responsible for breaking down proteins.

"This finding suggests that right before cells in the ventral furrow change shape, they break down proteins, perhaps the cytoskeletal proteins that preserve their columnar shape," said Minden.

To compare the abundance and kinds of proteins made at different stages of development, Minden and his colleagues used Difference Gel Electrophoresis, a tool created by Minden and commercialized by Amersham, plc. Using DIGE, scientists label two protein samples with different color fluorescent dyes and then run both samples on the same gel, which separates proteins by size and electrical charge. A computer program analyzes the gel to detect differences in the abundance and presence of all the proteins from the two samples and reports them back to the investigator.

"Our study is really a starting point. Comparing the proteomes at different stages in an animal’s development, together with other experimental tools, can help uncover the network of functions and interactions required for a variety of developmental processes and disease states." Minden said.


The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Lauren Ward | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cmu.edu/
http://dev.biologists.org/content/vol131/issue3/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>