Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists have identified a switched-off family of genes that may prove to be a significant and early dent in a colon cells anti-cancer armor. The inactivated genes, called SFRPs - for secreted frizzled-related protein - put the brake on a pathway of cell-growth genes that is an early step en route to cancer. Because the way SFRP genes are altered-through the attachment of so-called methyl groups-is reversible, the findings, reported in the March 14 advance online edition of Nature Genetics, also suggest potential anti-cancer value in green tea and other compounds that affect methylation. "SFRP could be a great target for preventing cancer," says Stephen Baylin, M.D., Ludwig Professor of Oncology and director for basic research at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center. A cancer cell stops the SFRP genes brake on cell growth by attaching a methyl group to a specific portion of the gene in a process called hypermethylation. Green tea and other compounds are thought to block enzymes that control methylation.
SFRP genes encode proteins that, when secreted on the cells surface, stop a chain reaction of cell growth directed by the WNT gene. WNT stands for "wingless type," which, along with SFRP genes, gets its name from characteristics of fruit flies with mutations in these genes. The WNT gene pathway has long been linked to colon cancer by scientists at the Kimmel Cancer Center and elsewhere.
"Previously, we thought that mutations downstream of the WNT gene were enough to trigger the cell to stay alive, keep growing and develop into a tumor. Our key finding is that the cell also may need to shut off SFRP genes to become cancerous," says Baylin. When Baylins team put SFRPs back into colon cancer cells with inactivated SFRP genes and mutations in the WNT pathway, the cells stopped growing uncontrollably and died.
Vanessa Wasta | EurekAlert!
Warming ponds could accelerate climate change
21.02.2017 | University of Exeter
An alternative to opioids? Compound from marine snail is potent pain reliever
21.02.2017 | University of Utah
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
21.02.2017 | Earth Sciences
21.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
21.02.2017 | Trade Fair News