Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Chicken genome assembled

02.03.2004


First avian genome now available to scientists worldwide



The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), today announced that the first draft of the chicken genome sequence has been deposited into free public databases for use by biomedical and agricultural researchers around the globe.

A team led by Richard Wilson, Ph.D., from the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis successfully assembled the genome of the Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus, which is the ancestor of domestic chickens. Comprised of about 1 billion DNA base pairs, the chicken genome is the first avian genome to be sequenced.


The Washington University researchers have deposited the initial assembly, which is based on seven-fold sequence coverage of the chicken genome, into the public database, GenBank (www.ncbi.nih.gov/Genbank). In turn, GenBank will distribute the sequence data to the European Molecular Biology Laboratory’s Nucleotide Sequence Database, EMBL-Bank (www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/index.html), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan, DDBJ (www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp).

To facilitate comparative genomic analysis, the researchers also have aligned the draft version of the chicken sequence with the human sequence. Those alignments can be scanned using the University of California, Santa Cruz’s Genome Browser, (http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgGateway); the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s Map Viewer, (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mapview); and the European Bioinformatics Institute’s Ensembl system, (http://www.ensembl.org/).

Sequencing of the chicken genome began in March 2003. NHGRI provided about $13 million in funding for the project.

In addition, using the Gallus gallus genome sequence assembled by Washington University as a reference framework, an international team, led by the Beijing Genomics Institute in China and supported by the Wellcome Trust in Britain, has created a map of genetic variation for three different strains of domestic chickens. The strains were a broiler strain from the United Kingdom, a layer strain from Sweden and a Silkie strain from China. To make the map, researchers identified and analyzed about 2 million genetic variation sites, mostly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The genetic variation data will soon be deposited into GenBank, from which the data will be freely accessible to researchers worldwide.

Recent outbreaks of avian flu have accelerated scientists’ interest in learning more about the chicken genome and how genetic variation may play a role in the susceptibility of different strains to the disease. In addition to its tremendous economic value as a source of eggs and meat, the chicken is widely used in biomedical research. It serves as an important model for the study of embryology and development, as well as for research into the connection between viruses and some types of cancer.

The chicken also is well positioned from an evolutionary standpoint to provide an intermediate perspective between mammals, such as humans, and lower vertebrates, such as fish. By comparing the human genome sequence with those of other organisms, researchers can identify regions of similarity and difference. This information can help scientists better understand the structure and function of genes and thereby develop new strategies to combat human disease.

Geoff Spencer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/Sequencing/SeqProposals/Chicken_Genome.pdf
http://genome.gov.

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Symbiotic bacteria: from hitchhiker to beetle bodyguard
28.04.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

nachricht Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis
28.04.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>