Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Chemical that turns mouse stem cells into heart muscles discovered by Scripps researchers

18.02.2004


A group of researchers from The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at The Scripps Research Institute and from the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) has identified a small synthetic molecule that can control the fate of embryonic stem cells.



This compound, called cardiogenol C, causes mouse embryonic stem cells to selectively differentiate into "cardiomyocytes," or heart muscle cells, an important step on the road to developing new therapies for repairing damaged heart tissue.

Normally, cells develop along a pathway of increasing specialization. In humans and other mammals, these developmental events are controlled by mechanisms and signaling pathways we are only beginning to understand. One of scientists’ great challenges is to find ways to selectively differentiate stem cells into specific cell types.


"It’s hard to control which specific lineage the stem cells differentiate into," says Xu Wu, who is a doctoral candidate in the Kellogg School of Science and Technology at Scripps Research. "We have discovered small molecules that can [turn] embryonic stem cells into heart muscle cells."

Wu is the first author of the study to be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society and which was conducted under the direction of Peter G. Schultz, Ph.D., who is a professor of chemistry and Scripps Family Chair of the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology at The Scripps Research Institute, and Sheng Ding, Ph.D, who is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Scripps Research.

Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Therapy

Stem cells have huge potential in medicine because they have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types -- potentially providing cells that have been permanently lost by a patient. For instance, neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s, in which dopaminergic neurons in the brain are lost, may be ameliorated by regenerating neurons. And Type I diabetes -- in which beta cells are lost -- might be treated by generating new beta cells.

Likewise, a damaged heart, which is composed mainly of cardiac muscle cells that the body may be unable to replace once lost, could potentially be repaired with new muscle cells derived from stem cells.

Scripps Research scientists reasoned that if stem cells were exposed to certain synthetic chemicals, they might selectively differentiate into particular types of cells. In order to test this hypothesis, the scientists screened some 100,000 small molecules from a combinatorial small molecule library that they synthesized. Just as a common library is filled with different books, this combinatorial library is filled with different small organic compounds.

From this assortment, Wu, Ding, and Schultz designed a method to identify molecules able to differentiate the mouse embryonic stem cells into heart muscle cells. They engineered embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells with a reporter gene encoding a protein called luciferase, and they inserted this luciferase gene downstream of the promoter sequence of a gene that is only expressed in cardiomyocytes. Then they placed these EC cells into separate wells and added different chemicals from the library to each. Any engineered EC cells induced to become heart muscle cells expressed luciferase. This made the well glow, distinguishing it from tens of thousands of other wells when examined with state-of-the-art high-throughput screening equipment. These candidates were confirmed using more rigorous assays.

In the end, Wu, Ding, Schultz, and their colleagues found a number of molecules that were able to induce the differentiation of EC cells into cardiomyocytes, and they chose one, called Cardiogenol C, for further studies. Cardiogenol C proved to be effective at directing embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes. Using Cardiogenol C, the scientists report that they could selectively induce more than half of the stem cells in their tests to differentiate into cardiac muscle cells. Existing methods for making heart muscle cells from embryonic stem cells are reported to result in merely five percent of the stem cells becoming the desired cell type.

Now Wu, Ding, Schultz, and their colleagues are working on understanding the exact biochemical mechanism whereby Cardiogenol C causes the stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, as well as attempting to improve the efficiency of the process.

The article, "Small Molecules that Induce Cardiomyogenesis in Embryonic Stem Cells" was authored by Xu Wu, Sheng Ding, Qiang Ding, Nathanael S. Gray, and Peter G. Schultz and is available to online subscribers of the Journal of the American Chemical Society at: http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/asap.cgi/jacsat/asap/abs/ja038950i.html. The article will also be published in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.


This work was supported by The Skaggs Institute for Research and the Novartis Research Foundation.

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, is one of the world’s largest, private, non-profit biomedical research organizations. It stands at the forefront of basic biomedical science that seeks to comprehend the most fundamental processes of life. Scripps Research is internationally recognized for its research into immunology, molecular and cellular biology, chemistry, neurosciences, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and synthetic vaccine development.

Jason Bardi | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/asap.cgi/jacsat/asap/abs/ja038950i.html

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ambush in a petri dish
24.11.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New proton record: Researchers measure magnetic moment with greatest possible precision

High-precision measurement of the g-factor eleven times more precise than before / Results indicate a strong similarity between protons and antiprotons

The magnetic moment of an individual proton is inconceivably small, but can still be quantified. The basis for undertaking this measurement was laid over ten...

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

IceCube experiment finds Earth can block high-energy particles from nuclear reactions

24.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 'half-hearted' solution to one-sided heart failure

24.11.2017 | Health and Medicine

Heidelberg Researchers Study Unique Underwater Stalactites

24.11.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>