Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Winter weather turns on flowering gene

08.01.2004


In four months, when flower buds spring up from the ground, you may wonder how plants know it’s time to bloom. This question has baffled plant biologists for years. Now, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have an answer: a gene that functions as an alarm clock to rouse certain plants from a vegetative state in the winter to a flowering state in the spring.

According to the researchers, the findings, published in the Jan. 8 issue of the journal Nature, could lead to new methods for manipulating the productivity of crop plants, as well as a better understanding of how organisms control the fate of their cells.

Most people may not know that some of our favorite salad ingredients - carrots, cabbage, radishes, beets and parsley - take two seasons to flower and produce seeds because we harvest them before they have the chance to flower. These plants, called biennials, require a season of cold to flower.



"We’ve known that winter does something to the plant’s growing tip, or meristem, and makes it competent to flower," says Richard Amasino, a UW-Madison biochemistry professor and senior author of the paper. "If biennials don’t go through winter, they won’t flower." But why, he adds, has remained a mystery.

This mystery started to unravel in 1999, when Amasino and his colleagues identified two genes central to the flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana, a small, flowering plant that’s a member of the mustard family. The genes work together to block blossoming. As they observed, one of these genes is no longer expressed in the spring, when the plants can flower and complete their life cycle.

How winter switches off this flower-inhibiting gene in the second growing season, says Amasino, was the next obvious question. So, the Wisconsin scientist and UW-Madison biochemistry graduate student Sibung Sung looked to a biennial variety of Arabadopsis, a plant that’s widely used as a model organism in plant biology and genetics. They screened for mutants that wouldn’t bud after surviving temperatures just above freezing, and they found three - all lacking a gene now called VIN3.

After further investigation, the researchers learned that an extended period of cooler temperatures prompts the VIN3 gene to turn on. Once activated, the gene starts the process of vernalization, whereby the plant becomes competent to flower after exposure to cold. As this process begins, the expression of the flower-suppressing gene identified in 1999 wanes until it is completely blocked.

The researchers report that the VIN3 gene is expressed only after plants have been exposed to conditions effective for vernalization, suggesting that the VIN3 gene functions as an alarm clock rousing biennial plants to bloom.

But how do plants know they’ve been exposed to the right temperature for the right amount of time? "This is an intriguing question," says Sung. "Without a nervous system, plants must have a mechanism by which they can remember they have been through the winter season." Although plants don’t have a brain like humans do, they do have cellular machinery that appears to remember cold exposure, according to the new research.

The Wisconsin scientists show that the expression of VIN3, which occurs after exposure to cold, initiates a series of changes in one of the flower-suppressing genes. Specifically, VIN3 activation permanently modifies the structure of histones, a group of proteins over which DNA is wrapped. These changes block the flower-suppressing gene, switching the plant from a fixed state where it won’t flower to a fixed state where it can flower.

Scientists speculate that changes in histone structure play a major role in the development of higher organisms and the formation of cancer cells. Says Sung, "Histone changes in model plants could give us the opportunity to extend our understanding of how organisms control their cell fates during development."

The findings by Amasino and Sung also could lead to improvements in agriculture.

"This new molecular understanding could provide information to help design tools to manipulate flowering," the biochemistry professor says. For example, agronomists could engineer biennial crops that lack VIN3 and never flower, potentially increasing yield. But as Amasino clarifies, he’s in the business of basic science - it’s up to others to use the information.

Further Contact: Sibum Sung, 608-262-4640, sbsung@biochem.wisc.edu

Richard Amasino | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wisc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists enlist engineered protein to battle the MERS virus
22.05.2017 | University of Toronto

nachricht Insight into enzyme's 3-D structure could cut biofuel costs
19.05.2017 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

Im Focus: Hydrogen Bonds Directly Detected for the First Time

For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. Researchers from the University of Basel’s Swiss Nanoscience Institute network have reported the results in the journal Science Advances.

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and is an integral part of almost all organic compounds. Molecules and sections of macromolecules are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

Media accreditation opens for historic year at European Health Forum Gastein

16.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New approach to revolutionize the production of molecular hydrogen

22.05.2017 | Materials Sciences

Scientists enlist engineered protein to battle the MERS virus

22.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Experts explain origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars and Titan

22.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>