Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists Discover What Plants Do During Long Winter Nights

02.01.2004


In research published today scientists at the John Innes Centre (JIC), Norwich(1), report on what plants do during the hours of darkness. During daylight hours plants use the energy from sunlight to power the production of food (sugar) from carbon dioxide and water. This process (photosynthesis) is well understood, but what happens when the sun goes down? The JIC researchers have found a previously unknown sugar transport system within plants and this has, for the first time, shed light on what plants do in the darkness. Their research is published in two related papers in international science journals ‘Science’ and ‘The Plant Journal’(2).

That plants use energy from sunlight to power the production of sugar from carbon dioxide and water is familiar to many people. Photosynthesis is a hugely important process because it sustains most of the food chains on the planet as well as recycling carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Worldwide, plants use solar energy to capture millions of tonnes of carbon dioxide every day. They convert it first to sugar and then to carbohydrate, fat and protein – some of which we harvest for food.

”Photosynthesis is well understood, but our discovery is really exciting because it gives us a new insight into how plants control the use of the sugar that they produce” said Professor Alison Smith (Head of the Metabolic Biology Department and leader of the research team at the JIC). “We already know that sugar is the starting point for all of the processes of plant growth and development, but our work shows how plants ensure that even in the darkness of long winter nights, they have sufficient sugar to meet their needs”.



As well as making sugars from carbon dioxide, photosynthesis also makes some starch. This is temporarily stored in the leaf during the day. At night, when photosynthesis and hence conversion of carbon dioxide to sugars is not possible, the starch is broken down to make sugars. This maintains the supply of sugars, thereby allowing the plant to survive and grow during the hours of darkness. The discovery by John Innes Centre scientists reveals for the first time the mechanisms inside leaves that are responsible for converting millions of tonnes of starch to sugars each night.

The way that plants use the sugar they make in photosynthesis is of enormous significance in agriculture. Understanding how the sugar is used will enable plant breeders to develop crops in which more of the sugar goes into useful products in the seeds, leaves and tubers of crops. This will increase agricultural efficiency by increasing the proportion of useful material that crops produce. Conversion of starch into sugars is also of great significance in controlling the sweetness, taste, quality and storage characteristics of many fruits. In tomatoes, for example, higher starch content both improves processing quality and reduces the energy required for processing.

Ray Mathias | alfa
Further information:
http://www.jic.ac.uk
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journals/tpj

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Single-stranded DNA and RNA origami go live
15.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists
15.12.2017 | Louisiana State University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>