While the controversy surrounding the ethics of stem cell research shows no signs of abating, scientists continue to demonstrate the promise of stem cell–derived therapies for a wide range of degenerative diseases. The hope is that stem cells, which retain a unique "pluripotent" ability to morph into any of the 200 cell types of the human body, could be used to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissue. However, little is known about the molecular events that trigger this differentiation of stem cells. In this issue of PLoS Biology, Minoru Ko and colleagues present a model that takes a first step towards characterizing the molecular profile of stem cells, based on a comprehensive database of genes expressed in mouse early embryos and stem cells.
Arguing that a broad understanding of these molecular determinants requires a broad selection of cell types, the scientists combined new gene expression data on early embryos and stem cells with existing gene expression data to compare transcription patterns across a wide range of cell types and developmental stages. The expanded mouse transcriptome (record of transcribed genes) included data on unfertilized eggs; "totipotent" fertilized eggs, which have the potential to become any cell; pluripotent embryonic cells; various embryonic and adult stem cells; and fully differentiated cells.
Because they examined tissues that had not previously been included in studies of expressed sequences, Ko et al were able to find 1,000 new gene candidates, which they grouped according to particular embryonic stage and stem cell type. From these signature gene sets, they identified a cluster of 88 genes which may serve as molecular markers of developmental potential.
Barbara Cohen | PLoS
Maelstroms in the heart
22.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation
Decoding the structure of the huntingtin protein
22.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
22.02.2018 | Business and Finance
22.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
22.02.2018 | Life Sciences