Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ohio State creates gene chip for horse

16.12.2003


Alicia Bertone


Researchers at Ohio State University have created a DNA gene chip that contains thousands of the genes for a horse and one of the first gene chips for a domestic animal.

The new chip houses more than 3,200 expressed horse genes on a sliver of glass about the size of a postage stamp. When the researchers began developing this chip two years ago, only 200 horse genes were known.

This new chip will allow researchers to scan an individual horses genes at once to see which ones are active in a certain situation. For example, drug companies might use a gene chip to predict how a particular drug will affect an animal.



Since their invention nearly a decade ago, gene chips have revolutionized some basic approaches to research. Having a representative gene chip for a large animal could lead to better accuracy in studying human disease. Commercial gene chips already exist for humans, mice, rats, rice plants and a number of microorganisms.

"Although we rely on animal models to study human diseases, we really aren’t sure what some of the genetic differences are between those animal models and humans," said Alicia Bertone, the professor of veterinary clinical sciences who led Ohio State’s efforts in developing the equine gene chip.

"The genetic differences between humans and most animals are small in most cases, more than 90 percent of our DNA is similar," Bertone said. Knowing which genes are similar can be a boon to researchers who use animal models to learn about human diseases.

"Gene chips can help uncover these key differences, giving us critical information before we launch into an experiment," Bertone said. "The scientific community has invested a lot of money in animal models that don’t truly represent the human situation, so having this kind of information is extremely beneficial."

Bertone developed the chip with the help of Weisong Gu, a postdoctoral researcher in veterinary clinical sciences at Ohio State. Gu created a computer program that helped he and Bertone discover and describe 3,088 horse genes. They added these genes to the 200 already-known genes to create the chip. In order to define the genes, the researchers compared sequences of horse DNA to already-known human genes. Bertone said there are likely thousands of more genes yet to be identified for the horse.

Data derived from the equine gene chip could give researchers insight into gene expression for specific equine and human diseases and conditions. For example, gene chips let researchers see how thousands of genes respond to an illness. This information can be used clinically to study disease in horses and in translational research from horse to human.

"The closer we can demonstrate that an animal model really mimics a human disease, the better off we are," said Bertone, adding that horses are often used as models for orthopedic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and osteochondrosis a disease that inhibits bone growth. The equine gene chip can also be used to identify horse diseases such as equine protozoal myelitis (EPM), a debilitating neurological disease. Also, testing a drug or other therapy is typically done in large animals, such as horses, dogs and cats, before being tested on humans.

"More accurate animal models mean we’ll spend less money on and use fewer animals for finding cures," Bertone said. "Billions of dollars are invested in developing drugs that work really well in mice but fail in larger animal models and humans."

The new equine chip includes genes that regulate cell death, the cell cycle, cell signaling and development. The cost of the chip is around $350 to $450.

This work was supported in part by Affymetrix, Inc., the manufacturer of a variety of gene chips.


Contact: Alicia Bertone, 614-292-6661; Bertone.1@osu.edu
Written by Holly Wagner, (614) 292-8310; Wagner.235@osu.edu

Holly Wagner | OSU
Further information:
http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/genechip.htm

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Closing in on advanced prostate cancer
13.12.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

nachricht Visualizing single molecules in whole cells with a new spin
13.12.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gecko adhesion technology moves closer to industrial uses

13.12.2017 | Information Technology

Columbia engineers create artificial graphene in a nanofabricated semiconductor structure

13.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Research reveals how diabetes in pregnancy affects baby's heart

13.12.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>