In species-rich rainforests of the New World tropics most trees have broad geographic distributions–from Mexico to Bolivia and sometimes to the West Indies. Either they have excellent dispersal abilities, or they established broad ranges prior to the formation of present geographic barriers. In a study featured in American Naturalist, Christopher Dick, Kobinah Abdul-Salim and Eldredge Bermingham address these questions in the first phylogeographic study of a rainforest tree.
The morphology of the study species, Symphonia globulifera (Clusiaceae) is uniform across a natural range that includes the New World tropics and Africa. Symphonia globulifera also has a detailed fossil pollen record, which the authors used to calibrate a molecular clock for DNA sequences obtained from African and Neotropical populations and to estimate when these populations were separated. The study revealed that, although trees from different populations look the same, the evolutionary history of these populations is probably quite distinct.
Although marine dispersal of S. globulifera is considered improbable because it has salt-intolerant seeds, the authors demonstrate that Symphonia expanded into Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin and the West Indies via oceanic currents at least three times. The three major New World clades – found in Mesoamerica, the Amazon basin, and the West Indies – diverged over 15 million years ago, and appear to have been genetically isolated ever since, giving Symphonia globulifera the status of "living fossil".
Christopher Dick | EurekAlert!
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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