Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Major mutations, not many small changes, might lead way to new species

13.11.2003


Hummingbirds visited nearly 70 times more often after scientists altered the color of a kind of monkeyflower from pink – beloved by bees but virtually ignored by hummingbirds – to a hummer-attractive yellow-orange.



Researchers writing in the Nov. 13 issue of Nature say perhaps it was a major change or two, such as petal color, that first forged the fork in the evolutionary road that led to today’s species of monkeyflowers that are attractive to and pollinated by hummingbirds and separate species of monkeyflowers that are pollinated by bees.

The color change is the result, it appears, of mutation in a single gene, according to H.D. "Toby" Bradshaw, a professor of biology at the University of Washington and lead author of the Nature piece. He says the resulting quick change in pollinator preferences adds to the debate over whether new species arise according to the classic, 150-year-old Darwin theory of evolution that says it may take a hundred small genetic changes, each with mounting effect, or might speciation be kick-started by a few mutations that cause large effects.


"It could be that the first adaptations require a few big changes, sort of like taking a watch that has stopped ticking and banging it a few times before making the small tweaks to restore its optimal performance," says Douglas Schemske, professor of plant biology at Michigan State University and co-author of the letter in Nature.

There are 123 species of monkeyflowers, a wildflower found around the world. Mimulus lewisii appeals to bees with forward-thrusting petals that serve as a landing platform and yellow nectar guides that contrast with the pale pink flowers. The closely related M. cardinalis, on the other hand, has a deep, tubular shape that excludes bees but is easily probed by the slender beaks of hummingbirds, and has red or deep yellow-orange petals, colors bees can’t see.

These and other differences make the species of monkeyflowers distinct and nearly eliminates crossbreeding in the wild.

In an experiment funded by the National Science Foundation, the researchers changed the region of a chromosome, thought to be a single gene, that affects the concentration of yellow pigment in petals of monkeyflowers. M. lewisii, the normal favorite of bees, responded with petals of yellow-orange instead of the usual pink. Although its other features – flower size, petal shape and amount of nectar – were unchanged, the resulting flowers were suddenly being visited 68 times more often by hummingbirds. The flowers were actually shunned by bees, probably because orange is in the spectrum of light they don’t see.

In another alteration as part of the experiment, M. cardinalis, usually favored by hummingbirds, responded with petals that were dark pink rather than deep red. These flowers appealed equally to hummingbirds and bees.

Bradshaw and Schemske say altering just the genetic region responsible for the concentration of yellow pigment is much like what might happen during a naturally occurring mutation.

"Perhaps a single mutation having to do with color changed the pollinator milieu back when there was only a single species," Bradshaw says. That one big evolutionary step may then have been followed by many smaller steps triggered by pollinator preferences that led ultimately to different species.

Monkeyflowers, so-called because someone once imagined the face of a monkey in the markings on the blossoms, have been used by researchers interested in ecology and evolution for more than 50 years. The plants readily reveal the effects of crossbreeding and can be planted in native settings so they are useful for experiments.

"A unique aspect of out work is that it combines ecological observations with molecular genetic techniques to elucidate the process of adaptation in natural populations," Schemske says.

Schemske, Bradshaw and researchers at Duke University, Clemson University, University of North Carolina and University of Montana recently received $5 million for the study of monkeyflowers and questions of how species arise. The money is part of the new Frontiers in Integrative Biological Research program .



For more information
Bradshaw, (206) 954-4392, toby@u.washington.edu (On Veterans Day, it will be best to call rather than use e-mail)
Schemske, (517) 432-5289, schem@msu.edu
Michigan State University media contact: Tom Oswald, (517) 432-0920, oswald@msu.edu
NSF’s Frontiers in Integrative Biological Research explores biology’s mysteries:
http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/03/pr03106.htm

Sandra Hines | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/03/pr03106.htm

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells
22.08.2017 | National University Health System

nachricht Biochemical 'fingerprints' reveal diabetes progression
22.08.2017 | Umea University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>