Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Dog genome published by researchers at TIGR and TCAG

26.09.2003


New technique, partial shotgun-genome sequencing at 1.5X coverage of genome, provides a useful, cost-effective way to increase number of large genomes analyzed



Analysis reveals that 650 million base pairs of DNA are shared between dog and humans including fragments of putative orthologs for 18,473 of 24,567 annotated human genes; Data provide necessary tools for identifying many human and dog disease genes

Researchers at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG) have sequenced and analyzed 1.5X coverage of the dog genome. The research, published in the September 26th issue of the journal Science, asserts that a new method of genomic sequencing, partial shotgun sequencing, is a cost-effective and efficient method to sequence and analyze many more large eukaryotic genomes now that there are a number of reference genomes available with which to compare. This important new study was funded by the J. Craig Venter Science Foundation.


The TIGR/TCAG team assembled 6.22 million sequences of dog DNA for nearly 80% coverage of the genome. Comparing the dog sequence data with current drafts of the human and mouse genome sequences showed that the dog lineage was the first to diverge from the common ancestor of the three species and that the human and dog are much more similar to each other at the genetic level than to the mouse. The group also identified 974,400 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the dog. These genetic variations are important in understanding the genes that contribute to diseases and traits among various breeds of dogs.

The dog genome sequencing project, led by Ewen Kirkness, Ph.D., investigator at TIGR, revealed that more than 25% or 650 million base pairs of DNA overlap between human and dog. The sequence data was used to identify an equivalent dog gene for 75% of known human genes. In addition to this core set of common genes, the sequence data has revealed several hundred gene families that have expanded or contracted since divergence of the dog lineage from our common ancestor. For example, the dog genome is predicted to encode a much greater diversity of olfactory receptors than we find in human - which may contribute to their keen sense of smell.

"In little more than a decade genomics has advanced greatly and we now have approximately 150 completed genomes, including the human, mouse and fruit fly, in the public domain," said J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., president, TCAG. "With each sequenced genome the level of information gleaned through comparative genomics is invaluable to our understanding of human biology, evolution, and basic science research. Our new method is an efficient and effective way of sequencing that will allow more organisms to be analyzed while still providing significant information."

Conservation of the dog and human genome sequences is not restricted to genes, but includes an equally large fraction of the genomes for which functions are not yet known. "Understanding why these sequences are so highly conserved in different species after millions of years of divergent evolution is now one of the most important challenges for mammalian biologists," says Kirkness.



The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), which sequenced the first complete genome of a free-living organism in 1995, is a not-for-profit research institute based in Rockville, Maryland. TIGR conducts research involving the structural, functional, and comparative analysis of genomes and gene products in viruses, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

The Center for the Advancement of Genomics (TCAG) is a not-for-profit genomics policy and research center dedicated to advancing science and medicine through education and enlightenment of the general public, elected officials, and students. TCAG will seek to better understand evolutionary issues, broad social and ethical issues such as race as a social concept rather than a scientific one, and combating genetic discrimination. TCAG will also focus on the public issues associated with biology/genomics in mitigating greenhouse gas concentrations and biological energy production. TCAG is a 501 (c) (3) organization.

Media Contacts:
TCAG: Heather Kowalski
301-943-8879
hkowalski@tcag.org

TIGR: Robert Koenig
301-838-5880
rkoenig@tigr.org

Robert Koenig | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.tigr.org/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New insight into a central biological dogma on ion transport
26.06.2017 | Aarhus University

nachricht UK chemistry researchers develop catalyst that mimics the z-scheme of photosynthesis
26.06.2017 | University of Kentucky

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New 3-D model predicts best planting practices for farmers

26.06.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

New research reveals impact of seismic surveys on zooplankton

26.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Correct connections are crucial

26.06.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>