Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

There are no genes of ageing, but there is a program for it

01.09.2003


Probably, animals and human beings possess a biochemical vehicle for measuring life span. The key role in this vehicle is played by a short DNA - chronomere. The chronomeric ageing theory, based on tremendous experimental material, has been developed with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.



Early in the 70s of the 20th century, Russian researcher Alexy Olovnikov forecast existence of the chromosomes’’ end sequences - telomer, which shorten after each cell division. Aa lot of scientists believe now that telomer shortening leads to cell ageing. However, A.M. Olovnikov is convinced that telomer shortening is only the witness of ageing, and special DNA molecules – chronomeres - are responsible for ageing processes. Chronomeres are located in non-dividing cells of the cerebrum. So far, this is only a hypothesis based on the tremendous experimental material collected by Russian and foreign researches within the recent years.

The chronomere – is a copy of a tiny sector of a chromosome’s DNA. Its length makes, apparently, 10 to15 thousand pairs of nucleotides. The chronomere is covered by proteins and lies in a special cavity, like in a nest, between coils of the chromosome which gave birth to it, the chronomere being tied up with the chromosome by chemical bonds. The chronomere contains several genes, from which a special enzyme (RNA-polymerase) prints short RNA molecules. These RNAs interact with certain chromosome’s genes, influence their activity, and, consequently, affect the entire cell’s activity.


Periodically hormonal storms – the hormones bursts following one after another at certain frequency - break the chronomeres’monotonous existence. These bursts last for about ten minutes and they most probably engage the growth hormone and/or insulin-like factor. Calm periods depend on the species the organism belongs to. An adult person may have the “bursts” probably once a month (lunar rhythm) or once in two weeks. At that period, RNA- polymerase rushes along the chronomere extremely fast. Along with that, enormous mechanical stress occurs on the DNA molecule, the stress tearing up the chronomere. While the chronomere restores the break and resumes its position in the chromosome “nest”, other cellular enzymes have time to “eat it up” significantly. Thus, chronomere shortens and gradually loses the genes with the help of which it stimulates the activity of central nervous system cells which, in their turn, direct the activity of the peripheral body cells subordinated to them. Seemingly, different types of cerebral cells have chronomeres different in specificity, and in general, an entire chronomere network exists in the central nervous system. That is why the chronomeres’ shortening leads gradually to wasting away of practically all systems, organs and tissues of a multicellular organism, although this does not happen simultaneously. A large number of indications controlled by chronomeres in the course of the organism development, turn out later to be numerous indications of its ageing. It is no accident that researchers of various vertebrate and invertebrate species accordingly testify that the brain is the leading organ in the organism ageing.

Chronomeres have not been found yet, because nobody looked for them and they are hard to find. Even the Human Genome program has failed to find the small molecules, successions of which are indistinguishable from respective successions of chromosomal DNA. Nevertheless, some data exists which confirms the possibility of chronomeres’ existence. Thus, Uruguayan cytogeneticists have found unusual tiny cavities in chromosomes. Probably, these are the “nests”, from where chronomeres fell out in the course of preparation of microscopical medications.

A.M. Olovnikov is convinced that natural ageing is programmed. Ageing is based not on some ageing genes’ action, but a single universal vehicle - shortening of chronomeres. Each shortening is a click of biological clock, which measures the life span of an animal and duration of its ageing. Proceeding from possible chronomeres’ properties, A.M. Olovnikov suggests several theoretically feasible genetic engineering methods for protecting chronomeres or restoring them after damages. But there is a long way from theoretical “immortality“ through to its practical implementation. First of all, chronimeres should be discovered.

Sergey Komarov | Informnauka
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New risk factors for anxiety disorders
24.02.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers
24.02.2017 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>