Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gene Critical for Neurotransmitter Synthesis Also Affects Longevity

31.07.2003


Dopamine and serotonin, two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, are intimately involved in muscle control, memory, sleep, and emotional behavior. They are also linked to illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease and mood disorders. Now, regulation of longevity may be added to this list.



Three natural variants in the gene for DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), an enzyme required for the production of dopamine and serotonin, together accounted for 15 percent of the genetic contribution to variation in life span among strains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, according to recent research by geneticists at North Carolina State University.

“This is a surprisingly large effect for a gene affecting a complex trait, such as longevity or body size, which is typically controlled by many genes with relatively small effects,” said Dr. Trudy Mackay, William Neal Reynolds Professor of genetics at NC State and director of the study. Results of the study appear in the paper “Dopa decarboxylase affects variation in Drosophila longevity,” published in the July 27 online edition of Nature Genetics.


The fruit fly is a handy model organism for studying the genetics of longevity and other complex traits in animals. “We can make designer genotypes in fruit flies and test the effects of mutations,” said Mackay.

The three variants interacted in a complex way to affect variation in longevity. Some variants in the DDC gene increased life span of the fruit flies and others decreased it. Interestingly, some variants that were associated with increased life span were not present in the population as frequently as expected, while others associated with decreased life span were more common than expected. Natural selection processes do not simply favor longevity; instead, they promote variability in life span.

The research was a collaboration among scientists at NC State University and the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. It was funded in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Russian Fund of Basic Research, and the Russian Academy of Science.

“Our results have real implications for humans,” said Mackay. “The DDC gene is a strong candidate for regulation of longevity in humans. The various genome projects active today have revealed an astounding similarity in the genetic makeup of organisms as disparate as yeast, Drosophila, and humans. For instance, over two-thirds of the known human disease genes have corresponding genes in Drosophila, and genes affecting key biological processes seem to be conserved across all animals.”

Mackay and her team of geneticists have been working to identify genes affecting life span in Drosophila in order to discover the genetic basis of complex traits: what genes and mutations affect the trait, how genes interact with other genes and with the environment, and the molecular basis of the interactions.

“If everything is interactive, the effect of a single gene on a complex trait may be marginal,” said Mackay. “But it’s not impossible to foresee future pharmacological interventions that could improve the quality of life of the aging population.”

Abstract: Mutational analyses in model organisms have shown that genes affecting metabolism and stress resistance regulate life span1, but the genes responsible for variation in longevity in natural populations are largely unidentified. Previously, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting variation in longevity between two Drosophila melanogaster strains2. Here, we show that the longevity QTL in the 36E; 38B cytogenetic interval on chromosome 2 contains multiple closely linked QTL, including the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) locus. Complementation tests to mutations show that Ddc is a positional candidate gene for life span in these strains. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping in a sample of 173 alleles from a single population shows that three common molecular polymorphisms in Ddc account for 15.5% of the genetic contribution to variance in life span from chromosome 2. The polymorphisms are in strong LD, and the effects of the haplotypes on longevity suggest maintenance of the polymorphisms by balancing selection. DDC catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin3. Thus, these data implicate variation in the synthesis of bioamines as a major factor contributing to natural variation in individual life span.

Dr. Trudy Mackay | North Carolina State University
Further information:
http://www.ncsu.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona

nachricht Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>