Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Melbourne scientist overturns 30 year calcium dogma

09.07.2003


A University of Melbourne research team has overturned 30 years of dogma on how a cell transports calcium, revealing potential insights into cancer and neuro-degenerative diseases.



Professor Mike Hubbard, Department of Paediatrics and School of Dental Science, will reveal his research in this area at the International Congress of Genetics, Melbourne on Thursday 10 July. He will also discuss the latest on their recent discovery of a new class of protein that they have linked to breast cancer and fertility.

Hubbard, a trained dentist and bio-medical researcher, is using proteomics to investigate the role of calcium and cell survival. When beginning this research, he knew that dental enamel cells process large amounts of calcium and have the unusual capacity to survive high concentrations of the stuff. This led to Hubbard adopting the dental enamel cell as his research model.


Calcium is a critical component of cell survival and function; too much or too little will kill a cell.

“Cells from major calcium-transporting tissues such as the kidney, gut and developing teeth, are likely to be informative about the cellular mechanisms used to handle calcium safely,” says Hubbard.

“Cancer cells thwart the system by being able to thrive with high concentrations of calcium. Knowledge of the calcium-handling machinery in normal cells should help our understanding of how cancer cells manage this feat,” he says.

By contrast, brain cells in people with neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzhiemer’s are unusually susceptible to the toxic effects of excess calcium.

For the last 30 years scientists have been basing their research in this area on the assumption that calcium was actively transported across the cell via a specific a protein acting as a form of packhorse.

Hubbard and his dental enamel cells have now confirmed this dogmatic assumption to be false.

“Any drug development looking to block particular aspects of the calcium transport machinery would probably have failed based on the old assumption,” says Hubbard.

Hubbard’s alternative calcium transport system is based on the cell’s protein factory called the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The ER can withstand high concentrations of calcium. Hubbard’s research suggests that the ER acts as a conduit for calcium from one side of the cell to the other.

New protein, new mystery
In the process of unravelling the conundrum of calcium transport, proteomics handed Hubbard and his team a second unexpected discovery in the form of a new protein. They have since found the protein abundant in just about every tissue of the body, but it is especially abundant in brain, lung and breast tumour cells.

The protein is also found in Drosophila, so is highly conserved, suggesting again that it has an important function. The more important the function of a protein or gene, the greater it tends to be conserved through evolution. Fruit flies without this protein are sterile.

Three international teams, including Hubbard’s, are now trying to pinpoint the role of this protein.

“We know it is important, but its exact role is proving hard to pin down. Every stone we turn over tells us it is an extremely important protein,”

Most of Hubbard’s research was done with the University of Otago, New Zealand. Hubbard’s team first reported the new protein in 1997. Prof Hubbard was appointed as Professorial Fellow, Oral and Facial Sciences, in the Department of Paediatrics and School of Dental Science, University of Melbourne in January 2003.

Jason Major | University of Melbourne
Further information:
http://uninews.unimelb.edu.au/view.php?articleID=747

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>