One of the most powerful tools in today’s biological and medical science is the ability to artificially remove and add bits of DNA to an organism’s genome. This has helped scientists to understand problems caused by defective genes, for example, which have now been linked to thousands of human diseases. So far the technology has been limited to small segments of DNA. But four years ago, Francis Stewart and his colleagues at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (Heidelberg) developed a new technique to engineer greater stretches of DNA in bacteria. The researchers, now working at the Biotec-Technical University in Dresden, have just used this method to engineer a complex set of changes in a mouse gene, in hopes of shedding light on human leukemias. Their work appears in the current edition of the journal Nature Biotechnology.
Over two decades ago, researchers learned to use bacteria as "copy machines" for DNA taken from other organisms. This was a huge step for biotechnology, because most types of research require billions of copies of a molecule under investigation. However, there was a limitation: researchers need to change the DNA molecules in precise ways and for large molecules, such as whole genes, this was tremendously difficult.
Stewart and his colleagues thought that bacteria could be taught to do better, so they "borrowed" a strategy that organisms such as mice and yeast use to repair breaks in DNA. Proteins called recombinases circulate through their cells, looking for loose DNA fragments that have familiar sequences.
Russ Hodge | EurekAlert!
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The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
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Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
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Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
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The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
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