Using atomic-force microscopy, vision researchers have taken pictures of some of the eyes photon receptors in their natural state, and have analyzed their packing arrangement. Their findings, published in the Jan. 9 issue of Nature, offer insight on how light signaling might be controlled in the retinas outer edge.
THE WELL-ORGANIZED EYE: This close up, high-magnification image of the disc membrane on a rod from the retina shows protrusions lined up in neat, double rows like eggs in a carton. The protrusions are a paracrystal form of rhodopsin, a light absorbing chemical.
The retina receives light through rods and cones. Rods, which are most heavily concentrated on the retinas outer edge, are sensitive to dim light and to movement, but not to color. Rods, like cones, face away from incoming light. Within rods, light causes a chemical reaction with rhodopsin. This begins a chain of stimulation along the visual pathway, which sends information to the brain for interpretation. The brain can detect one photon of light, the smallest unit of energy, when it is absorbed by a photoreceptor.
The outer segment of a rod looks roughly like a stack of microscopic coins inside a wrapping. The segment is made up of discs covered by a membrane. Scientists studying the retina knew that the outer-segment disc membranes of rods are densely packed with rhodopsin molecules. This bunching together allows for optimum absorption of dim light and for subsequent amplification of the faint signal by the visual pathway. However, how rhodopsin molecules are physically arranged to increase the probability of being activated by a photon was not known.
Leila Gray | EurekAlert!
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Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein
22.03.2018 | Universität Basel
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
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