Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Stem cells from whole adult bone marrow differentiated into central nervous system cells

20.12.2002


Research continues in an effort to determine if these neural cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders



Researchers at Cedars-Sinai’s Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute have for the first time demonstrated that stem cells from whole adult bone marrow can be differentiated into several types of cells of the central nervous system.

A long-term objective of this research is to determine if these neural stem cells can be transplanted to treat stroke, brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders. This capability would give physicians a renewable source of neural progenitor cells, available from a patient’s bone marrow instead of the brain, and without the ethical and tissue-rejection issues associated with the use of fetal stem cells.


Results of the study appear as the cover article of the December issue of the journal Experimental Neurology. While this study was conducted in rats, similar optimistic results have been seen in human tissue, according to senior author John S. Yu, M.D., Co-director of the Comprehensive Brain Tumor Program at the Neurosurgical Institute.

Using modified viruses as transporters, researchers were able to transfer specific genes into neural stem cells – cells that have the potential to differentiate into any of several types of cells of the central nervous system. They then confirmed that the new cells expressed the proteins that had been encoded and established that the stem cells were capable of differentiating into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendroglia.

The replacement of damaged brain cells with healthy cells cultured from stem cells is considered one of the most promising therapies in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Numerous studies are underway to develop effective methods, but finding a reliable source for the generation of neural cells for transplantation has been a challenge. The use of embryonic cells and fetal tissue raises ethical questions and the possibility of immune rejection.

Therefore, the best source of tissue for transplantation is the patient, and studies have shown that neural stem cells can be isolated, cultured and propagated from the brain tissue of adult mammals. But the removal of healthy tissue from a patient’s brain introduces another set of safety, practicality and ethical issues.

The work at Cedars-Sinai involved a several-step process. Whole bone marrow cells were cultured, leading to the generation of "spheres" that were similar to neurospheres grown from neural stem cells. The bone marrow spheres were then differentiated into both neurons and glia. These cells, with their potential for expansion in the laboratory, may be good candidates for transplantation and repair of the nervous system, according to the researchers.

Dr. Yu said other recent related studies at the Institute have shown that neural stem cells are capable of tracking brain tumor cells as they spread. This is an important finding because one of the greatest challenges in treating malignant brain tumors is the fact that tumor cells often separate from the main tumor mass and migrate to form satellites. Malignant tumors also have poorly defined borders that are enmeshed in healthy tissue, making it difficult or impossible for surgeons to remove all of the cancer without damaging normal brain.

"In our research, neural progenitor cells could clearly be seen tracking pockets of tumor cells that were migrating away from the main tumor mass," said Dr. Yu. "This clearly demonstrated the ability of neural progenitor cells to actively follow pockets of tumor cells that disseminate through the brain."

Neural stem cells were also able to track brain tissue that was injured when blood flow was restricted – the type of damage caused by ischemic stroke. Forty-eight hours after neural stem cells were injected into the arteries of rats with ischemic brain lesions, researchers found transplanted cells distributed throughout the ischemic part of the brain. The cells were readily able to cross the blood-brain barrier, the body’s natural defense to protect brain cells from toxic substances.


The bone marrow study was supported in part by National Institutes of Health grant NS02232 to Dr. Yu. Peter Kabos, M.D., a post-doctoral fellow at the Institute, is the article’s first author.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is one of the largest nonprofit academic medical centers in the Western United States. For the fifth straight two-year period, it has been named Southern California’s gold standard in health care in an independent survey. Cedars-Sinai is internationally renowned for its diagnostic and treatment capabilities and its broad spectrum of programs and services, as well as breakthrough in biomedical research and superlative medical education. Named one of the 100 "Most Wired" hospitals in health care in 2001, the Medical Center ranks among the top 10 non-university hospitals in the nation for its research activities.


Sandra Van | Van Communications
Further information:
http://www.csmc.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Complementing conventional antibiotics
24.05.2018 | Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

nachricht Building a brain, cell by cell: Researchers make a mini neuron network (of two)
23.05.2018 | Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

When corals eat plastics

24.05.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Surgery involving ultrasound energy found to treat high blood pressure

24.05.2018 | Medical Engineering

First chip-scale broadband optical system that can sense molecules in the mid-IR

24.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>