A key role in synchronizing daily rhythms to the day/night cycle has been traced to a light-sensitive protein in the eye, by knocking out the gene that codes for it. Mice lacking a gene for the photopigment melanopsin show a dramatic deficiency in their ability to regulate their circadian rhythms by light. The discovery, by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grantees, helps unravel the heretofore elusive mechanisms by which day/night cycles regulate such rhythms in mammals. NIMH grantees Ignacio Provencio, Ph.D., Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), and Steve Kay, Ph.D., The Scripps Research Institute, and colleagues report on their findings in the December 13 Science.*
In a similar knockout mouse study reported in the same issue of Science, another research team, led by NIMH grantee Norman Ruby, Ph.D., Stanford University, also found melanopsin to be a "significant contributor" to circadian function.**
Each day, a clock in the brains hypothalamus that governs daily rhythms – sleeping/waking, body temperature, eating, arousal. -- is reset by light detected in the eyes. Yet, how this works has been a mystery. Light can still reset the clock even if the rods and cones, the photoreceptors in the retina for vision, are removed, but not if the eyes are removed. Hence, scientists have hypothesized that the eyes must contain a system of photoreceptors for resetting the clock that is separate from the system for sight.
Jules Asher | EurekAlert!
At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
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For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
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Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
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Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters
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Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).
Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...
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