Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UMass scientist identifies gene that governs obesity, physical activity, sex behaviors in mice

10.12.2002


Findings based on ’knock-out’ mice detailed in the journal Physiology and Behavior



A team led by University of Massachusetts Amherst researcher Deborah J. Good has identified a gene that appears to play a role in obesity, physical activity, and sex behaviors in mice. Good works with so-called "knock-out" mice, which have a specific gene deleted. Scientists then monitor the animals for changes in their physiology and behavior, in an effort to determine the gene’s role. Her findings are detailed in the current issue of the journal Physiology and Behavior. The project is funded with a four-year, $1 million grant from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and a two-year, $70,000 grant from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, both of the National Institutes of Health.

Good is studying the mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that regulate appetite and body weight. Although more than 20 genes have been implicated in the regulation of body weight, the mechanisms through which these genes work remain unclear, she says. Recent evidence by Good suggests that a gene called Nhlh2 plays a key role in the regulation of genes controlling body weight, as well as physical activity levels and mating behavior.


"The knock-out mice can weigh up to 100 grams or more, while most normal mice weigh 25 to 30 grams. Thus, the knock-outs are the equivalent of a 450-pound person," Good says. Two issues contribute to their obesity: the all-too-familiar diet and exercise factors. The mice eat far past what should be the point of satiety, and show a marked disinterest in running on an exercise wheel. "Most mice love to run on a little exercise wheel when you put it in their cage," notes Good, "but not these guys. They run less than other mice before they become obese. Once they do put the extra weight on, their decreased physical activity contributes to their weight gain even more than their food intake."

But these mice can legitimately blame their weight on their genes – or rather, their lack of the Nhlh2 gene. "The gene is responsible for giving them the message, ’You’re full, so stop eating,’ or ’You need to increase your activity, so get some exercise.’" Without Nhlh2, the message is sent but can’t be received on a molecular level, so their body weight continues to increase, Good explains. "It’s as if someone is sending you e-mail, but you’re not reading the message. The message has been sent, but it’s not useful."

"There are humans who have this mutation," notes Good. "If we understand the molecular mechanisms that deal with obesity, perhaps we’ll be able to develop pharmaceuticals for people whose enzyme activity is offset." She also notes that humans can be coached to increase their exercise levels and lower their food intake.

In addition, the gene deletion appears to affect sex behaviors. The knock-out mice have a smaller genital size and lower sperm counts than typical mice. In addition, they show disinterest in mating when they share a cage with a receptive female. (They are able to produce offspring through in vitro methods.) Good cautions that the findings may not be analogous in human beings, in terms of infertility. "We don’t know what would happen in humans," Good says. "There might be fertility problems, but human sex behavior is greatly affected by sociological and cultural expectations that certainly aren’t a factor among mice."

In a related project, Good is studying the molecular control of male reproduction. Although more than 16 specialized proteins are implicated in controlling fertility, the molecular mechanisms of reproduction remain unclear, Good says. She and her team are working toward understanding the molecular control of reproduction and fertility by a specific gene known as Nhlh2.


Note: Deborah Good can be reached at 413/545-5560 or goodd@vasci.umass.edu

Elizabeth Luciano | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.umass.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Designer cells: artificial enzyme can activate a gene switch
22.05.2018 | Universität Basel

nachricht Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
22.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Designer cells: artificial enzyme can activate a gene switch

22.05.2018 | Life Sciences

PR of MCC: Carbon removal from atmosphere unavoidable for 1.5 degree target

22.05.2018 | Earth Sciences

Achema 2018: New camera system monitors distillation and helps save energy

22.05.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>