Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Findings Reconfirm Toxicity of Pfiesteria Cultures

23.10.2002


A team of experts has refuted previous findings published last summer stating that Pfiesteria is not toxic to fish or humans. When they cultured the same strain of P. shumwayae studied by the dissenting scientists, it produced a toxin that killed fish within minutes.



Dr. JoAnn Burkholder, director of North Carolina State University’s Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology, presented the results of the new study Tuesday at the 10th International Conference on Harmful Algae in St. Petersburg, Fla. The findings are significant because they reconfirm a decade of research showing that Pfiesteria is a dangerous toxic organism.

Last summer’s papers had been critical of work by Burkholder and other scientists who discovered Pfiesteria and described its life cycle and toxic impacts on fish and mammals. However, the dissenting scientists’ work was based primarily on research with one strain. In the new study three laboratories, assisted in toxin analysis by a fourth "blind" lab, have shown that this allegedly nontoxic strain does produce toxin after all. Burkholder said that their team’s results differed because they grew the culture under conditions that allowed it to express toxicity.


"I hope these findings finally help set the record straight by addressing the widespread misinformation about this issue during the past few months," Burkholder said. "Growing these cultures is very complex and difficult work. We are entirely confident that the strain we have tested, taken from the very same culture they used, is toxic and dangerous."

Populations or strains of Pfiesteria, like other toxic algae, are known to vary in toxicity. There are strains that can kill fish with toxin and benign strains that cannot. More than 50 peer-reviewed science articles have been published about toxic Pfiesteria, in cross-confirmed research based on more than 400 toxic strains and 200 nontoxic strains.

Careful review of the culture methods used in last summer’s studies raised concerns among Burkholder, Drs. Andrew Gordon and Harold Marshall at Old Dominion University, and Dr. Alan Lewitus at the University of South Carolina.


"We were surprised to find that these scientists extrapolated beyond their data from just one strain to all strains of Pfiesteria, even to both species," Burkholder explained. "Pfiesteria is difficult to culture in actively toxic mode, and their methods did not follow the only standard procedure that has worked so far in producing toxic Pfiesteria. We decided to re-test that strain of Pfiesteria shumwayae using the standard protocol."

The P. shumwayae strain had been grown with algal prey for two years. In previous research, all but four of the 400 toxic strains examined by Burkholder and other specialists on toxic Pfiesteria had rapidly lost their ability to make toxin when they were not grown with live fish. Therefore, the team led by Burkholder expected that the strain would not be able to produce toxin.

The three laboratories grew this strain in standardized fish bioassays. They compared mortality of juvenile tilapia grown with the test strain of Pfiesteria shumwayae, versus tilapia grown with a known toxic strain. Some control fish were grown with a known nontoxic Pfiesteria strain, while others were maintained without any Pfiesteria. Once the strain was rapidly killing fish, it was re-isolated from the fish cultures and grown with algae for several weeks so that pure culture, without fish and associated contaminating microbes, could also be tested for any remaining toxicity.

"When we used the standardized method with this P. shumwayae strain, it responded to fish very quickly," said Lewitus. Within a few days the culture was killing fish at low to moderate cell densities of 800-5000 cells per milliliter. Fish died at comparable rates when exposed to the known toxic strain, but all control fish remained healthy.

"With the nontoxic control strain, even at very high densities of 40,000 cells per milliliter, there was no fish death or apparent stress," said Marshall, "although there was some physical attack."

The scientists then sent samples to toxin specialists Drs. John Ramsdell and Peter Moeller at the NOAA-National Ocean Service Marine Biotoxins Program in Charleston, S.C., for toxin analysis. The toxin specialists analyzed them "blind," without knowing the identity of the samples. A potent water-soluble toxin was detected from the test P. shumwayae strain grown with fish and in pure culture with algae - the same toxin that was found in the known toxic strain. Both the cells and the surrounding water in which the test strain was grown contained toxin. No toxin was found in the negative controls.

These new data show that the scientists who reported that Pfiesteria is not toxic actually had a toxic strain all along. "Toxic Pfiesteria strains are widespread and easily found in many estuaries," said Burkholder. "The controversy here is not a culture availability issue. This multi-laboratory study shows that it is, instead, a culturing issue. It is really important for laboratories to use procedures that allow Pfiesteria to express toxicity."

At the same conference on Thursday, Gordon and Marshall will present related research showing that when some strains of toxic P. shumwayae and other microbes are removed from fish-killing cultures by filtration, the filtrate kills fish. This indicates a toxic effect of Pfiesteria without physical contact. Dr. Mac Law, a veterinary fish pathologist at NC State, found that fish exposed to the toxic filtrate developed skin lesions, showing that Pfiesteria can cause these sores without physical attack.

New findings about Pfiesteria toxin will also be presented at the Florida meeting this week. Ramsdell and Moeller will describe novel rapid purification methods that they used to obtain information on the toxin’s chemical structure. They also isolated toxin from pure cultures of toxic Pfiesteria, grown without live fish. When test fish were exposed to the toxin, they died in minutes.

Other new research, conducted by Dr. Edward Levin of Duke University, will highlight impacts of Pfiesteria toxin on mammals. When Levin injected this Pfiesteria toxin into the hippocampus of live rats, they developed severe learning deficits, supporting previous studies that have linked toxic Pfiesteria with profound learning disabilities in rats and humans.

Dr. JoAnn Burkholder | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>