Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New studies advance scientific knowledge of drinking water disinfection byproducts

16.10.2002


Studies published in International Journal of Toxicology



In its September/October issue, the International Journal of Toxicology is pleased to publish the last in a series of four studies examining possible reproductive and developmental health effects from two byproducts of drinking water chlorination. These studies fill significant data gaps identified by a Federal Advisory Committee formed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on drinking water regulations.

Small amounts of disinfection byproducts, including bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromoacetic acid (DBA), are formed in drinking water when chlorine disinfectants combine with naturally occurring organic matter. Several epidemiology studies have reported a possible association between these byproducts and adverse reproductive outcomes, including spontaneous abortion. Because the existing toxicology data was very limited, the Federal Advisory Committee recommended that BDCM, in particular, should be thoroughly studied for a potential causal relationship to reproductive and developmental toxicity.


To address these data gaps, researchers at Argus Research Laboratories examined laboratory animals exposed to BDCM and DBA through drinking water. Each study found no adverse effects at dose levels thousands of times higher than those to which humans are exposed. Based on the results of these studies, the researchers concluded that BDCM and DBA are unlikely to pose a reproductive or developmental health risk to humans. EPA will review this research as it develops new regulations on disinfection byproducts.

The studies were designed to comply with the EPA’s Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Guidelines and with the EPA’s Guidelines for Good Laboratory Practices. Each study was independently monitored. In addition, an independent panel of experts reviewed the study designs and interpretation of data. The studies were sponsored by the Research Foundation for Health and Environmental Effectsâ, a tax-exempt foundation established by the Chlorine Chemistry Council.

Following are brief summaries of each study:

Biodisposition of DBA and BDCM in Rats and Rabbits

Christian, et al. 2001. Biodisposition of Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) Administered to Rats and Rabbits in Drinking Water During Range-Finding Reproduction and Developmental Toxicity Studies. International Journal of Toxicology, 20:239-253.

The study evaluated whether detectable concentrations of DBA or BDCM were absorbed from the drinking water provided to rats and rabbits and whether there were detectable levels of either DBA or BDCM present in the maternal blood, placentas, fetuses, pups, or maternal milk. No quantifiable concentrations of BDCM were found, suggesting that BDCM is rapidly degraded or metabolized in the body. DBA produced quantifiable concentrations in the maternal blood, placentas, fetuses, pups, and maternal milk. No reproductive and developmental effects were observed in these preliminary studies, suggesting that neither DBA nor BDCM are reproductive or developmental risks for humans.

Developmental Toxicity Studies of BDCM

Christian et al. 2001. Oral (Drinking Water) Developmental Toxicity Studies of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) in Rats and Rabbits. International Journal of Toxicology, 20:225-237.

Two studies, one using rats and one using rabbits, evaluated pregnant animals exposed to BDCM concentrations of 0, 15(rats), 50 (rabbits), 150, 450, and 900 parts per million (ppm) in drinking water. By comparison, drinking water concentrations of BDCM rarely exceed 0.025 parts per million. Researchers observed no adverse developmental effects at concentrations up to 450 ppm in rats and 900 ppm in rabbits. Based on the results of these studies, the authors concluded, "BCDM should not be identified as a risk to [human] development."

Reproductive Toxicity Study of BDCM

Christian et al. 2002. Oral (Drinking Water) Two-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) in Rats. International Journal of Toxicology, 21:115-146.

The study evaluated rats exposed to BDCM concentrations of 0, 50, 150 and 450 ppm in drinking water. In this study, the researchers observed no adverse reproductive or developmental effects at any of these concentrations. Based on the results of this study, the authors concluded, "BCDM should not be identified as a risk to human reproductive performance or development."

Reproductive Toxicity Study of DBA

Christian et al. 2002. Oral (Drinking Water) Two-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study of Dibromoacetic Acid (DBA) in Rats. International Journal of Toxicology, 21:237-276.

The study evaluated rats exposed to DBA concentrations of 0, 50, 250 and 650 ppm in drinking water. Researchers observed no adverse effects at 50 ppm, an estimated 45,000 – 116,000 times the human adult exposure level. Based on the high multiples of human exposure required to produce effects, the study authors concluded, "DBA should not be identified as a human reproductive or developmental risk."

Dr. Bruce Bernard | EurekAlert!

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
23.11.2017 | Norwegian University of Science and Technology

nachricht Migrating Cells: Folds in the cell membrane supply material for necessary blebs
23.11.2017 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Frictional Heat Powers Hydrothermal Activity on Enceladus

Computer simulation shows how the icy moon heats water in a porous rock core

Heat from the friction of rocks caused by tidal forces could be the “engine” for the hydrothermal activity on Saturn's moon Enceladus. This presupposes that...

Im Focus: Nanoparticles help with malaria diagnosis – new rapid test in development

The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.

Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....

Im Focus: A “cosmic snake” reveals the structure of remote galaxies

The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.

Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...

Im Focus: Visual intelligence is not the same as IQ

Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.

That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...

Im Focus: Novel Nano-CT device creates high-resolution 3D-X-rays of tiny velvet worm legs

Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.

During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Ecology Across Borders: International conference brings together 1,500 ecologists

15.11.2017 | Event News

Road into laboratory: Users discuss biaxial fatigue-testing for car and truck wheel

15.11.2017 | Event News

#Berlin5GWeek: The right network for Industry 4.0

30.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Underwater acoustic localization of marine mammals and vehicles

23.11.2017 | Information Technology

Enhancing the quantum sensing capabilities of diamond

23.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon

23.11.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>