Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tourists, soothsayers & scientists try to predict peak Fall foliage color

07.10.2002


But new study sheds light on what makes leaves turn red



Groundhog behavior is supposedly a harbinger of spring.

Wooly Bear Caterpillars are a possible portent of the severity of winter.


But who knows when the Vermont forests will blaze with autumnal gold, orange and scarlet?

Not the weather forecasters, not the almanacs, not some octogenarian recluse Vermonter. Leave that to the scientists.

Here in Vermont where one out of four of the forests’ trees are maples, predicting peak leaf color is important business. Maples are those trees whose brilliant yellow, orange and red foliage most responsible for making the landscape look like a giant spilled his whole bowl of Trix cereal across the Green Mountains in October.

Tourists spent more than $710 million dollars in Vermont last fall, making 1.5 million trips to the state, according to information gathered by the University of Vermont’s Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, published last month.

So Vermont monitors the changes in its forests as carefully as a tourist on Vermont’s Route 100 studies a road map.

Now scientists at the University of Vermont and US Forest Service who track forest color feel they may have unraveled one of the mysteries concerning leaf color.

While color development is affected by a number of factors, "one common thread may be stress," according to Abby van den Berg research technician at UVM’s Proctor Maple Research Center, who’s spent the last four years studying foliage in Vermont forests. She and a team of University of Vermont and US Forest Service scientists used the data from her master’s thesis research to evaluate potential environmental and chemical triggers of fall color development.

"This data has been a source for deeper understanding and a new hypothesis about the connection between stress and red pigmentation in autumn leaves." says Paul Schaberg, UVM adjunct faculty, US Forest Service scientist and the study’s lead author. He says that their study, soon to be published in the journal Tree Physiology, concludes that "nutrient stress, particularly low nitrogen, can instigate early and more intense red color in maples." Others contributing to the research are: Program Chair of Forest Ecology John Shane, Professor Emeritus John Donnelly and UVM alumni Paula Murakami who is also with the US Forest Service.

"We’re developing new clues about what affects the timing and quality of fall coloration. Very little of this kind of work has ever been done before," van den Berg says.

Researchers tested the chemical composition of thousands of leaves from 16 maple trees, providing important information about various indicators of red fall-color development. They used state-of-the-art computer imaging technology to measure the percentage of color in each leaf throughout the seasonal cycle.

In addition to nitrogen, many other factors – potential climate, drought, pollution and others – could affect color, but it will take years of further study to uncover the many mysteries of autumnal color displays.

Scientists do know that cold temperatures and less daylight trigger the breakdown of green chlorophyll from leaves to reveal the yellow that exist hidden beneath all summer. "Then the leaves can also produce red. But why would a tree make red in a leaf that’s about to die?" asks Schaberg. "That’s one of the fundamental questions that we seek to answer."

An abstract of the soon-to-be published study suggests that a primary function of red pigments is to protect trees from photoxidative damage and thereby enhance nutrient recovery during leaf senescence. That means "the trees probably turn red because it’s a helpful coping response to stress," says Schaberg. "One theory is that red is like a sunscreen that allows the leaf to linger long enough for the tree to absorb more nutrients."

But even scientist Schaberg isn’t a soothsayer. In early September he predicted that due to the stress of last summer’s shortage of rainfall, New England would enjoy an early autumn. Alas, a warm September doused by excess rain from two tropical storms, led to an early October with forests still decked in green leaves.

"We’ve had a warm, wet autumn so far," says van den Berg "so trees are a bit late in losing their green, but it all could change practically overnight. Vibrant fall color is going to happen, I can guarantee it."

Cheryl Dorschner | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://snr.uvm.edu/vtdc/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht At last, butterflies get a bigger, better evolutionary tree
16.02.2018 | Florida Museum of Natural History

nachricht New treatment strategies for chronic kidney disease from the animal kingdom
16.02.2018 | Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

Im Focus: Hybrid optics bring color imaging using ultrathin metalenses into focus

For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.

But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...

Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time

Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.

The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...

Im Focus: Interference as a new method for cooling quantum devices

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. Study published in Physical Review Letters

Quantum computer parts are sensitive and need to be cooled to very low temperatures. Their tiny size makes them particularly susceptible to a temperature...

Im Focus: Autonomous 3D scanner supports individual manufacturing processes

Let’s say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30).

Part of the charm of vintage cars is that they stopped making them long ago, so it is special when you do see one out on the roads. If something breaks or...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fingerprints of quantum entanglement

16.02.2018 | Information Technology

'Living bandages': NUST MISIS scientists develop biocompatible anti-burn nanofibers

16.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Hubble sees Neptune's mysterious shrinking storm

16.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>