Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sex-pheromone link to insect evolution

11.09.2002


Cornell University entomologists have unlocked an evolutionary secret to how insects evolve into new species. The discovery has major implications for the control of insect populations through disruption of mating, suggesting that over time current eradication methods could become ineffective, similar to the way insects develop pesticide resistance.



The researchers, led by Wendell L. Roelofs, the Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor of Insect Biochemistry at Cornell, made the discovery while examining ways to keep European corn borers from mating, multiplying and then chewing up farmers’ fields. They discovered the existence of a previously undetected gene, the delta-14, that can regulate the attractant chemicals produced in sex-pheromone glands of female borers. The gene can be suddenly switched on, changing the pheromone components that females use to attract males for mating.

The entomologists have demonstrated that insects evolve chemical systems in leaps rather than in minute stages, as had been previously assumed. The researchers also discovered that there are rare males in the corn borer population -- about 1 in 200 -- capable of responding to chemicals produced by the delta-14 gene.


"This is one way that insects become new species," says Roelofs, whose paper, "Evolution of moth sex pheromones via ancestral genes," will be published on the web site of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (Sept. 9-15, 2002.) The Cornell co-authors on the paper are: Weitian Liu, research associate in entomology; Guixia Hao, postdoctoral researcher in entomology; Hongmei Jiao, laboratory technician in entomology; and Charles E. Linn Jr., senior research associate in entomology. Alejandro P. Rooney, Mississippi State University assistant professor in biological sciences also contributed to the paper. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation and will continue to be funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Research Initiative.Roelofs explains that female insects attract males with specialized pheromones that he compares to radio frequencies. At major events with thousands of people, for instance, police might communicate on channel one, emergency medical personnel on channel two and administrators on channel three.

"With male and female borers, it’s the same thing," says Roelofs. "Certain species communicate on channel one, others on channel two, others on channel three. But when a female has a mutated delta-14 gene -- and by mutated I mean the gene is turned on -- it changes her channel from three to five. That means that out of 200 male borers, 199 cannot respond to her. It’s the one male borer capable of responding to her very selective channel that sets out to mate."

Soon other females with the delta-14 gene mate with other rare respondent males. Eventually, over time, the males and females stabilize their pheromone communication system, essentially isolating this new population from the parent species. "That’s one way species evolve," Roelofs says.

Manipulation of insect chemistry is an effective pest control strategy in that it can be used to disrupt mating behavior. For more than 20 years, Roelofs’ research at Cornell’s New York State Agricultural Experiment Station in Geneva has focused on chemical analyses of the pheromone components. Agricultural researchers have identified pheromones in over 1,000 species of insects and use them to monitor pest populations in 250 species and to disrupt mating in more than 20 species, Roelofs says.

This new research has implications for pest control. In addition to explaining how pheromone evolution might have occurred in the past, the paper also demonstrates that the conditions required for dramatic shifts in pheromone blends could well be present today and in the future. Insect populations could be capable of shifting away from a pheromone blend being used for their control in the field, making such control ineffective.

"Based on the difficulty of generating even small changes in pheromone blends in the lab, we thought that such resistance could not develop because natural pressure would prevent the species from gradually shifting to a different blend," says Roelofs. The presence of this kind of gene, capable of sudden activation, might provide a mechanism for resistance to occur, although no evidence for this has been found so far, he notes.

Roelofs expects this discovery to stimulate more research in this area, specifically to determine the breadth of the phenomenon and how it affects the evolution of many insect communication systems. His research team will be working on the genomes of fruit flies, mosquitoes, crickets and silkworms to detect if these kinds of genes are present.

Blaine P. Friedlander, Jr. | Cornell University News Service

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The irresistible fragrance of dying vinegar flies
16.08.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für chemische Ökologie

nachricht How protein islands form
15.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

Im Focus: Scientists improve forecast of increasing hazard on Ecuadorian volcano

Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).

The Andes region in which Cotopaxi volcano is located is known to contain some of the world's most serious volcanic hazard. A mid- to large-size eruption has...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New thruster design increases efficiency for future spaceflight

16.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Transporting spin: A graphene and boron nitride heterostructure creates large spin signals

16.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues

16.08.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>