Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Attention acts as visual glue

02.08.2002


When you gaze at a bowl of fruit, why don’t some of the bananas look red, some of the apples look purple and some of the grapes look yellow?

This question isn’t as nonsensical as it may sound. When your brain processes the information coming from your eyes, it stores the information about an object’s shape in one place and information about its color in another. So it’s something of a miracle that the shapes and colors of each fruit are combined seamlessly into distinct objects when you look at them.

Exactly how the brain recombines these different types of visual information after it has broken them apart is called the "binding problem" and is currently the subject of considerable controversy in the neuroscience community. But the results of a brain mapping experiment, published online by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on July 29, provide significant new support for the theory that attention is the glue that cements visual information together as people scan complex visual scenes.



The study was a collaboration among René Marois, assistant professor of psychology at Vanderbilt; John C. Gore, who recently moved from Yale to become a Chancellor’s University Professor at Vanderbilt; and Yale graduate student Keith M. Shafritz.

"There are more than a dozen places in the brain involved with processing visual information, each specializing in information with slightly different attributes," says Marois. "Some specialize in processing color, some specialize in processing shape, while others specialize in movement. These areas are not clustered together, but distributed widely around the back of the brain."

There are two leading theories about how the brain reintegrates this information.

One view proposes that the neurons in the scattered areas are bound together in a way that allows them to act simultaneously. When you look at a banana, the neurons that store information about the banana’s shape fire simultaneously with the neurons in a different region of the brain that store information about the banana’s color. It is the direct functional interaction between neurons located in different visual areas that binds together an object’s numerous visual properties.

In the 1980’s, Anne M. Triesman at Princeton and her colleagues advanced an alternative mechanism. She proposed that visual binding is mediated by the parietal cortex, an area of the brain known to be involved in spatial attention. She suggested that the act of focusing one’s attention on an object’s spatial location provides the key that binds the different types of visual information together. If an apple is sitting on the table in front of a woman, then her brain, specifically the parietal cortex, associates the information about its color and shape with its location and uses the spatial information to bind together the visual information whenever she focuses her attention on the apple.

The description of a patient who, following a brain injury in the parietal lobe, had difficulty associating colors with more than one object at a time gave Marois the idea for the basic experiment. When the person was presented with objects one at a time, he had no problem properly pairing their shapes and colors. When presented with two or more objects at the same time, however, he often mismatched the color of one object with the shape of another.

So Marois designed a series of trials that asked subjects to concentrate on the shape only, the color only or both shape and color of pairs of objects displayed on a computer screen while their brain activity was monitored using the technique called functional MRI. The researchers presented these pairs to the individuals either sequentially in the same location or simultaneously at different locations and recorded the areas in the brain that were most active.

"The purpose of our study was really to test the attention theory as strongly as we could," says Marois. "I was actually surprised that it worked because we had to adopt such stringent testing conditions."

Despite their stringency, the tests showed that activity in the parietal region increased significantly whenever the individuals were presented with more than one object at the same time.

"This provides strong evidence in favor of the theory that spatial attention is the binding glue that the brain uses to integrate visual objects whenever it is presented with more than one object at the same time, which is most of the time," says Marois.

While the study results support the attention theory, they do not rule out other mechanisms. "In fact," he adds, "it is practically certain that the brain uses several mechanisms to solve this fascinating problem."


The project was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

For more news about research at Vanderbilt, visit Exploration, Vanderbilt’s online research magazine at http://exploration.vanderbilt.edu.


David F. Salisbury | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://exploration.vanderbilt.edu
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New switch decides between genome repair and death of cells
27.09.2016 | University of Cologne - Universität zu Köln

nachricht A blue stoplight to prevent runaway photosynthesis
27.09.2016 | National Institute for Basic Biology

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New switch decides between genome repair and death of cells

27.09.2016 | Life Sciences

Nanotechnology for energy materials: Electrodes like leaf veins

27.09.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

‘Missing link’ found in the development of bioelectronic medicines

27.09.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>