It is hoped that these findings, published in BioMed Central’s open access journal, Genome Biology, will lead to a more precise way of defining the potential hepatotoxicity of new compounds.
It is already known that toxins can be classified using transcriptomic data taken from the primary target tissue or organ. In this new work, researchers set out to see if expression data from blood could serve as a surrogate for a target organ.
A team from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), part of the National Institutes of Health, and Cogenics, a division of Clinical Data, Inc., produced an extensive set of gene expression data combined with more traditional toxicological measurements, such as clinical chemistry and histopathology, after exposing rats to different known hepatotoxic compounds.
Rodents were treated with one of the eight hepatotoxicants being studied at varying doses designed to induce liver injury (either moderate, severe, or no measurable injury), or with a vehicle control. Data relating to histopathology, clinical chemistry, hematology and gene expression were collected from whole blood and from the liver at different timepoints following exposure.
The researchers confirmed that gene expression data from the target organ can be used to classify and differentiate toxins, and went on to show that classification is also possible using data from whole blood. One of the study’s co-authors, Edward K. Lobenhofer says: “These data illustrate the power of gene expression profiling to resolve differences in the physical manifestation of the injury evoked by different toxicants using samples derived from either target tissue or whole blood. Additionally, this study demonstrates the possibility of classifying differences in these types of injury using data generated from blood samples.”
The results emphasise the importance of ‘phenotypic anchoring’ – linking gene expression changes to traditional measures of toxicology. “Our results powerfully underscore the importance of anchoring gene expression data analysis through consistent phenotypic endpoints” says co-author Raymond W. Tennant, Head of the Cancer Biology Group at the NIEHS. “Through phenotypic anchoring we are able to facilitate the identification of genes useful in compound classification.”
The comprehensive dataset from the study has been made freely available through a publicly accessible website (http://cebs.niehs.nih.gov) and will be a valuable resource for the systems toxicology research community.
Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt
Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction