Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Major 'missed' biochemical pathway emerges as important in virtually all cells

27.05.2008
A new study by Duke University researchers provides more evidence that the nitric oxide (NO) system in the life of a cell plays a key role in disease, and the findings point to ways to improve treatment of illnesses such as heart disease and cancer.

The nitric oxide system in cells is “a major biological signaling pathway that has been missed with regard to the way it controls proteins,” and it is linked to cancer and other diseases when the system goes awry, said Jonathan Stamler, M.D., a professor of medicine and biochemistry at Duke University Medical Center who worked on the study.

In the body, nitric oxide plays a role in the transport of oxygen to tissues and physiological activities such as the transmission of nerve impulses, and the beating of the heart. When things go awry with the nitric oxide system, bad things can happen in bodies, according to recent studies. For instance, there may be too little nitric oxide in atherosclerosis and there may be too much in Parkinson’s disease; there may not be enough nitric oxide in sickle cell disease and there may be too much in some types of diabetes, Stamler said.

The new findings, which Stamler said change understanding of how the nitric oxide system is controlled, appear in the May 23 issue of the journal Science.

... more about:
»Heart »Oxide »Protein »Stamler »enzyme »nitric

“What we see now for the first time in the Science paper is that there are enzymes that are removing NO from proteins to control protein activity,” Stamler said. “This action has a broad-based effect, frankly, and probably happens in virtually all cells and across all protein classes. Nitric oxide is implicated in many disease processes. Sepsis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, Parkinson’s disease, heart failure, malignant hyperthermia -- all of these diseases are linked to aberrant nitric-oxide-based signaling.”

An important factor that previously wasn’t appreciated, he said, is that the target of nitric oxide in disease is different in every case. The finding of how nitric oxide binding to proteins is regulated opens the field for new refinement in biochemical research, said Stamler, who has been studying nitric oxide in cells for 15 years.

“Now we will need to study whether the aberrant cell signals are a matter of too much NO being produced and added to proteins or not enough being removed from proteins,” he said. “It is not simply a matter of too much or too little NO being in cells, but rather how much is being added or taken away from specific proteins, which is quite a different thing.”

First author on the paper, Moran Benhar, Ph.D., and co-author Douglas Hess, Ph.D., are both in the Duke Department of Medicine. Co-author Michael Forrester is a graduate student in the Duke Department of Biochemistry.

The research explains that the enzymes thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2 remove nitric oxide from the amino acid cysteine within mammalian cells, thereby regulating several different actions in cells. One result of this removal is the activation of molecules that begin apoptosis, which is the normal programmed death of a cell. This process has potential importance for many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, heart failure and cancer. Because thioredoxins are established targets of drug therapy for arthritis, the research suggests potential therapeutic applications of the process.

The nitric oxide system is analogous to the much more studied phosphorylation system, in which phosphates are added and removed from proteins, the paper said. Changes in phosphorylation are among the most common causes of disease, and proteins that regulate phosphorylation are major drug targets, Stamler said.

“Aberrant dephosphosphorylation causes disease. Expect the same for denitrosylation,” Stamler said.

Similar research at Duke that was published in the journal Nature on March 16 supports Stamler’s findings. Christopher Counter, an associate professor in the Duke Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, and colleagues found that eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), an enzyme that enhances the creation of nitric oxide, promoted tumor development and tumor maintenance in mice.

“The Chris Counter work is especially exciting because he shows that a nitric oxide synthase is linked to cancer, and he specifically identifies the protein that is the target of the nitric oxide, the protein that gets turned on through S-nitrosylation,” Stamler said. Blocking S-nitrosylation of this protein prevented cancer.

The steady stream of new papers on nitric oxide seems to underscore Stamler’s long-held belief that nitric oxide affects cells in bigger ways than many had appreciated. “When we began our studies two decades ago, we hypothesized that nitric oxide was part of a significant, broad-based system,” Stamler said. “Our hypothesis never changed.”

Mary Jane Gore | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.duke.edu

Further reports about: Heart Oxide Protein Stamler enzyme nitric

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Transport of molecular motors into cilia
28.03.2017 | Aarhus University

nachricht Asian dust providing key nutrients for California's giant sequoias
28.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Periodic ventilation keeps more pollen out than tilted-open windows

29.03.2017 | Health and Medicine

Researchers discover dust plays prominent role in nutrients of mountain forest ecoystems

29.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

OLED production facility from a single source

29.03.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>