Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bone Cells Found to Influence Blood Stem Cell Replication and Migration

26.05.2008
Using a novel investigatory technique, researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center have established that osteoblasts, cells responsible for bone formation, are also directly involved in the proliferation and expansion of blood-forming hematopoietic stem cells.

The finding, published online in May in the journal Blood, improves understanding of how such stem cells work and could have implications for the future of bone marrow and peripheral blood progenitor cell transplants, which are used in the treatment of a variety of illnesses – including leukemia, lymphoma and immunodeficiency.

The success of these transplants depends on the ability of intravenously infused blood-forming stem cells, which normally reside predominantly in the bone marrow, to accurately and efficiently migrate from the blood to the marrow of the transplant recipient and, once there, to repopulate their pool of mature blood cells.

“In normal individuals, blood-forming stem cells continually seed the production of all cells in the adult blood system. Appropriate regulation of stem cell activity is essential for maintaining this normal cell replacement, and for supporting repair of the blood system after injury,” said lead author Amy J. Wagers, Ph.D., Principal Investigator in the Joslin Section on Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, principal faculty member at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and Assistant Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard University.

The signals that regulate stem cells remain largely mysterious, but some have been proposed to emanate from specialized cells in the bone marrow environment which form a supportive “stem cell niche” to communicate physiologically relevant signals to stem cells.

A number of earlier studies had implicated bone-lining osteoblasts as important “niche cells.” However, these earlier studies were complicated by the presence of other cell types within the bone marrow. As a result, whether osteoblasts in particular could modulate blood-forming stem cell activity remained controversial.

To clarify this issue, Wagers and co-author Shane R. Mayack, Ph.D., Research Fellow in the Joslin Section on Development and Stem Cell Biology, developed a strategy to isolate osteoblasts and then exposed these osteoblasts to bone marrow stem and progenitor cells in vitro to test their ability to alter stem cell proliferation and function.

“The idea was to deconstruct the complexity of the marrow environment to find out whether osteoblasts alone were sufficient to regulate stem cell activity,” said Wagers.

In their experiment, the researchers took osteoblasts from normal mice and from mice treated with drugs designed to cause stem cells to proliferate and migrate – a process known as “mobilization.” They then exposed the isolated osteoblasts to bone marrow progenitor cells from normal mice in vitro.

The bone marrow cells exposed to the osteoblasts taken from the treated mice proliferated rapidly, while those from untreated mice were inhibited from replicating.

According to Wagers, this effect demonstrates that the osteoblast cells are capable of communicating to the stem cells the physiological signals provided by the drugs.

“It demonstrates that osteoblasts act as functional niche cells capable of directly regulating stem cell activity,” she said. “This work provides mechanistic insight into the common process of stem cell mobilization and makes available a new way to discover novel pathways that regulate the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells.”

“Additionally, this study establishes a new paradigm for examining more generally how ‘support cells’ in the body influence stem cell activity,” she said.

The new finding also provides an opportunity to study potential changes in niche cells that may contribute to diseases such as leukemia or bone marrow failure, said Wagers.

According to Wagers, future studies will seek to identify the molecular factors necessary for the communication between the osteoblasts and stem cells and to try and understand how changes in that communication system may play a role in the development of disease.

The work was supported in part by grants from the Smith Family Medical Foundation, Paul F. Glenn Laboratories, a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Career Award and the National Institutes of Health.

About Joslin Diabetes Center
Joslin Diabetes Center is the world’s largest diabetes clinic, diabetes research center and provider of diabetes education. Joslin is dedicated to ensuring people with diabetes live long, healthy lives and offers real hope and progress toward diabetes prevention and a cure for the disease. Founded in 1898 by Elliott P. Joslin, M.D., Joslin is an independent nonprofit institution affiliated with Harvard Medical School. For more information on Joslin, call 1-800-JOSLIN-1 or visit http://www.joslin.org.

Kira Jastive | newswise
Further information:
http://www.joslin.org

Further reports about: Diabetes Osteoblast Stem Wagers blood blood-forming marrow transplant

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells
22.08.2017 | National University Health System

nachricht Biochemical 'fingerprints' reveal diabetes progression
22.08.2017 | Umea University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Meter-sized single-crystal graphene growth becomes possible

22.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Repairing damaged hearts with self-healing heart cells

22.08.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>