The results, published online on the Nature biotechnology (1) website, show that only a few genes are responsible for the fungus's enzymatic activity. They offer new avenues for the fabrication of second generation biofuels from plant waste.
The fungus Trichoderma reesei was discovered in the South Pacific during the Second World War, where it was damaging American military equipment and was defeating every attempt at protecting the equipment with cotton cloth. The fungus contains a number of enzymes, cellulases, with potent catalytic properties that break down plants. It is considered to be the world's most efficient fungus at breaking down the cellulose in plant walls into simple sugars, which it feeds on.
After fermentation, simple sugars can easily be transformed into biofuels such as ethanol. First generation agrofuels, made from grain or from beet, have certain limitations. Second generation biofuels, made from foresting and agricultural waste (tree cuttings, corn cobs, straw, etc.) do not have these limitations, as they complement pre-established agricultural activity, have a better CO2 balance, et don't interfere with the agro-alimentary cycle. To produce these second generation biofuels, industrialists are looking to develop fungus strains capable of producing a cocktail of cellulases and hemicellulases at a concentration of 50 g/l. Trichoderma reesei is the choice organism for most projects in this field.
Bernard Henrissat's glycogenomic team at the Architecture et fonction des macromolécules biologiques lab specializes in the study of enzymes which break down sugars (2). In order to learn more about the incredible enzymatic activity of Trichoderma reesei, they assayed its genome. Contrary to their expectations, they found that the fungus has only a small number of genes which code for cellulases (hemicellulases and pectinases), many fewer in fact than in usually found in fungi capable of breaking down plant walls. Moreover, the fungus has no or very little enzymatic activity allowing the digestion of specific components in the wall.This was first interpreted as bad news, but the limitations of this model organism are now being seen as something positive. The fungus's enzyme cocktail lends itself to numerous genetic modifications, and researchers are looking into which other enzymes can be added to the fungus's gene sequence in order to make it even more efficient at producing bioethanol.
Julien Guillaume | alfa
Newly designed molecule binds nitrogen
23.02.2018 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
Atomic Design by Water
23.02.2018 | Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine
23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy