Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers close in on new melanoma gene

20.05.2008
Genome-wide study rapidly scans DNA for clues, narrows search

It has long been known that prolonged exposure to the suns harmful UV rays can lead to Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. An unanswered question, however, is why some people are more likely to develop melanoma than others.

Despite years of research and clinical development, melanoma incidences continue to rise around the world. According to the National Cancer Institute, the percentage of people in the United States who develop melanoma each year has more than doubled in the past 30 years.

Results published today from a study led by researchers from The Translational Genomic Research Institute (TGen) in Phoenix, Arizona and The Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR), Queensland, Australia, however, may yet change these statistics. The team is close to discovering a new gene that could help explain variation in melanoma risk.

... more about:
»Brown »DNA »QIMR »TGen »genetic variation »individual »melanoma

In a report appearing in an Advance Online Publication (AOP) of the journal Nature Genetics, the researchers and their colleagues identify a region on chromosome 20 (20q11.22) that influences a person’s risk of developing melanoma.

According to Dr Kevin Brown, TGen Investigator and the paper’s co-first author, compared to other genetic research focusing on familial (or inherited) cases of melanoma, this finding holds implications for the general population

“We’re closing in on genetic variants which cause 16 percent of the population to be at nearly double the increased risk of developing the disease. In public health terms, this finding is highly significant,” Dr. Brown said.

The researchers narrowed the gene location through a genome-wide association study — a first in melanoma research. Genome-wide studies involve rapidly scanning DNA of many people to find genetic variations associated with a particular disease. After identifying new genetic associations, researchers can use the information to develop better strategies to detect, treat and prevent the disease.

“The aim of our work is to identify and understand the genetic factors influencing melanoma so we can better predict risk estimates,” said QIMR’s Dr. Stuart MacGregor, co-first author on the study. “This in turn, means people will be better informed and can take the right precautions to avoid developing this increasingly common cancer.”

How The Study Works A genome-wide association study involves scanning the DNA from two sets of individuals: those with a particular disease (cases) and those of similar individuals without the disease (controls). The DNA of each sample then undergoes examination for strategically selected markers of genetic variation, called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. If certain genetic variations are found to be significantly more frequent in people with the disease compared to people without disease, those variations are said to be "associated" with the disease. The associated genetic variations can serve as roadmaps to the region of the human genome where the disease-causing gene resides.

The study — whose data collection began 20 years ago — involved more than 4,000 Australian samples (2,019 cases and 2,105 controls) and was a joint project between Australian, American and European research groups.

About Melanoma

According to the National Cancer Institute’s on-line booklet, What You Need to Know About Melanoma, melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin). It may begin in a mole (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye or in the intestines.

Melanoma is the most serious type of cancer of the skin. Each year in the United States, more than 64,800 people learn they have melanoma and approximately 8,400 will die from the disease. The disease is particularly prevalent in the Southwest, particularly Arizona, where the incidence rate is double the national average and is becoming more common every year.

Funding

Funding for Dr. Browns lab was provided by Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) Research Grant Program, whose purpose is to support promising medical research that will further the goal of developing an effective treatment and possible cure of malignant melanoma, while encouraging scientists and clinicians to join in this mission. The Foundation funds both junior and senior researchers. In both grant programs, emphasis will be placed on projects that explore innovative approaches to understanding melanoma and its treatment. Both basic and clinical research projects will be considered.

“Each year, we receive grant requests from some of the best and brightest melanoma researchers in the world,” said Linda Pilkington, Executive Director, Melanoma Research Foundation. “The research conducted by scientists like Dr. Brown gives melanoma patients the hope they need and deserve – hopefully one day leading to a cure for this deadly disease.”

About TGen

The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to conducting groundbreaking research with life changing results. Research at TGen is focused on helping patients with diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders and diabetes. TGen is on the cutting edge of translational research where investigators are able to unravel the genetic components of common and complex diseases. Working with collaborators in the scientific and medical communities, TGen believes it can make a substantial contribution to the efficiency and effectiveness of the translational process. TGen's vision is of a world where an understanding of genomic variation can be rapidly translated in a manner tailored to individual patients. For more information about TGen, please visit www.tgen.org.

About QIMR

Established in 1945 by the Queensland Government, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR) is one of the largest medical research institutes in the southern hemisphere, and is recognised worldwide for the quality of its research. Originally established to further the study of tropical diseases in North Queensland, QIMR has, over its 60 years' history, broadened its scope to include the immunological, biological and molecular basis of a wide range of infectious diseases, cancers and other disorders. QIMR has also built a strong research stream in epidemiology, the study of the environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors that contribute to disease incidence among populations.

About the Melanoma Research Foundation

The Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) is the largest private, national organization devoted to melanoma in the United States. The Foundation is committed to the support of medical research in finding effective treatments and eventually a cure for melanoma. The Foundation also educates patients and physicians about prevention, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, while acting as an advocate for the melanoma community to raise awareness of this disease and the need for a cure. The MRF Web site is the premiere source for melanoma information seekers. More information is available at www.melanoma.org.

Media Contacts:

TGen
Galen Perry
Phone: (602) 343-8423
E-mail: gperry@tgen.org
QIMR
Felipe Beltran, QIMR Media Relations Officer
Phone: (07) 3362 0291
E-mail: Felipe.Beltran@qimr.edu.au
MRF
Heather R. Huhman
Phone: (202) 742-5259
E-mail: Heather@JonesPA.com

Galen Perry | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.tgen.org

Further reports about: Brown DNA QIMR TGen genetic variation individual melanoma

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Link Discovered between Immune System, Brain Structure and Memory
26.04.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht Researchers develop eco-friendly, 4-in-1 catalyst
25.04.2017 | Brown University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientist invents way to trigger artificial photosynthesis to clean air

26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli

26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history

26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>