Scientists at the University of Virginia Health System have identified another step in the mysterious process of gene regulation -- what turns genes on or off, making them cause or suppress disease and other physical developments in humans. As reported in this week’s issue of the scientific journal Nature, a chemical group called ubiquitin has been shown to lie upstream of a switch that seems to control whether a gene is on or off. "Ubiquitin was first discovered on histones long ago, but before this study, we really did not know what it was doing in chromatin," said lead author and investigator Zu-Wen Sun, senior post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at U.Va. Ubiquitin is one of manydistinct kinds of chemical "flags" that are known to be present on histone proteins.
Histones are protein building blocks around which the DNA is coiled much like a Slinky toy. Together, they form a structure called chromatin, where additional levels of gene regulation occur outside the DNA itself. One mechanism for regulating gene expression in the form of chromatin is through the addition or removal of chemical groups that are attached to the histone proteins. These histone proteins are nearly identical in most complex living organisms, from humans to yeast, which was used as a model in this study. They are highly decorated with different kinds of chemical groups including methyl- and acetyl- groups. Distinct patterns of these marks may operate together to form a ’histone code’ that, in turn, precedes and influences gene activities within the chromatin, according to studies published last year by C. David Allis, Byrd Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at U.Va., who is co-author of the new study.
The four major types of histones each have a long "tail" which "wags" outside the surface of the chromatin fiber. Last year’s studies examined lysines at the fourth (K4) and ninth (K9) positions on the tail of one of the histones, H3, and revealed that when a chemical methyl group is added to these two positions, it turns genes on or off, acting much like a master control switch according to a histone code.
Cells migrate collectively by intermittent bursts of activity
30.09.2016 | Aalto University
The structure of the BinAB toxin revealed: one small step for Man, a major problem for mosquitoes!
30.09.2016 | CNRS (Délégation Paris Michel-Ange)
Heavy construction machinery is the focus of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s latest advance in additive manufacturing research. With industry partners and university students, ORNL researchers are designing and producing the world’s first 3D printed excavator, a prototype that will leverage large-scale AM technologies and explore the feasibility of printing with metal alloys.
Increasing the size and speed of metal-based 3D printing techniques, using low-cost alloys like steel and aluminum, could create new industrial applications...
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
30.09.2016 | Event News
29.09.2016 | Event News
28.09.2016 | Event News
30.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
30.09.2016 | Earth Sciences
30.09.2016 | Life Sciences