Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Rectal artemisinins rapidly eliminate malarial parasites

Artemisinin-based suppositories can help ‘buy time’ for malaria patients who face a delay in accessing effective, injectable antimalarials, according to research published in the online open access journal BMC Infectious Diseases.

Plasmodium falciparum malaria can progress to severe disease and death in a number of hours, so prompt treatment is crucial. As such, rectal artemisinins can be used as emergency treatment, particularly in rural areas with limited access to injectable antimalarial therapy and suitably trained staff.

Derived from sweet wormwood, artemisinin has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. In the 1990s, researchers recognised its antimalarial activity and since then a number of safe and effective artemisinin derivatives have been developed. These drugs, given by mouth, as a rectal suppository or injected into a vein or muscle have been shown to rapidly reduce heavy parasite infection. Oral artemisinin-based combination treatments now form the basis of antimalarial treatment policies in most malaria endemic countries.

Suppositories are easy to administer and the World Health Organization Malaria Treatment Guidelines currently recommends rectal artemisinins as a pre-referral treatment for severe malaria. However, more information is needed about the comparative efficacy of the different artemisinin derivatives. Researchers pooled the individual patient data of over 1000 patients from 15 clinical trials of rectal artemisinins – artemisinin, artesunate and artemether – to compare the efficacy of these drugs with each other and conventional injectable antimalarials such as quinine.

In the 24 hours after treatment, rectal artemisinins – artemisinin, artesunate, and artemether - cleared malarial parasites in the blood more rapidly than quinine injection. A higher single dose of rectal artesunate to initiate treatment was five times more likely to reduce the number of parasites by over 90% than multiple lower doses of artesunate – suggesting that immediate rapid achievement of high drug concentration in severe malaria might be key to effectively killing parasites. This analysis did not look at whether the early use of rectal artemisinins saves lives, but it is hoped that their ability to rapidly kill large numbers of parasites might make a real difference to survival.

The authors write: “Early effective treatment with artemisinin-based suppositories has potential as a lifesaving intervention, particularly at the periphery of the health-care system, where suppositories might be administered early in lieu of parenteral treatment in remote communities by relatively untrained personnel. Combined with accurate diagnosis and artemisinin-based combination therapy, rectal artemisinins have been effectively used to reduce malaria incidence and mortality in Asia, an approach which holds great promise for malaria control elsewhere.”

Charlotte Webber | alfa
Further information:

Further reports about: Artemisinin Malaria Rapidly antimalarial artesunate effective malarial parasite rectal

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht First time-lapse footage of cell activity during limb regeneration
25.10.2016 | eLife

nachricht Phenotype at the push of a button
25.10.2016 | Institut für Pflanzenbiochemie

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Greater Range and Longer Lifetime

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VDI presents International Bionic Award of the Schauenburg Foundation

26.10.2016 | Awards Funding

3-D-printed magnets

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

More VideoLinks >>>