Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Protein protects embryonic stem cells' versatility and self-renewal

25.03.2008
M. D. Anderson team connects REST to regenerative medicine, pediatric brain cancer

A protein known as REST blocks the expression of a microRNA that prevents embryonic stem cells from reproducing themselves and causes them to differentiate into specific cell types, scientists at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center report in the journal Nature.

Researchers show RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) plays a dual role in embryonic stem cells, said senior author Sadhan Majumder, Ph.D., professor in M. D. Anderson’s Department of Cancer Genetics. "It maintains self-renewal, or the cell’s ability to make more and more cells of its own type, and it maintains pluripotency, meaning that the cells have the potential to become any type of cell in the body."

The paper posted online March 23 in advance of publication grew from M. D. Anderson research on the protein’s role in medulloblastoma – an exceptionally aggressive pediatric brain cancer.

Embryonic stem cells are essentially blank slates. They have the unique ability to develop from identical, unspecialized cells and then differentiate into distinct types of cells with special functions. In the laboratory, scientists have been able to induce embryonic stem cells to develop into heart muscle cells or insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. The hope is that embryonic stem cells might one day be used to restore or replace failing cells in the human body and perhaps treat a wide range of diseases.

"Embryonic stem cells have a very high potential in medicine," Majumder said. "The critical thing is to learn the mechanisms that could be used to generate a lot of self-renewing embryonic stem cells and be able to differentiate them into various cell types." REST could play a key role in maintaining a steady supply of these cells and in preserving their differentiation capability.

Suppressing MicroRNA-21

In studies using mouse embryonic stem cells, the researchers found that REST disarms a specific microRNA called microRNA-21 or miR-21. MicroRNAs are tiny pieces of RNA that control gene expression by binding to the gene’s messenger RNA.

The team found that MiR-21 suppresses embryonic stem cell self-renewal and is associated with a corresponding loss of expression of critical self-renewal regulators, such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and c-Myc. REST counters this by suppressing miR-21 to preserve the cells’ self-renewal and pluripotency.

The researchers discovered the roles of REST and miR-21 in a series of experiments using cultured mouse embryonic stem cells in either a self-renewal state or a differentiating state. They found that REST expression was significantly higher in the self-renewal state. Withdrawing REST reduced the stem cells’ ability to reproduce themselves and started differentiation — even when the cells were grown under conditions conducive to self-renewal. Adding REST to differentiating cells maintained their self-renewal.

These experiments also revealed that REST is bound to the gene chromatin of a set of microRNAs with the potential to target self-renewal genes. REST controls transcription of 11 microRNAs.

REST Implicated in Pediatric Brain Cancer

Previous laboratory research suggests that the qualities that make REST beneficial in stem cell production and pluripotency may contribute to the development of medulloblastoma, an aggressive type of children’s brain tumor. Medulloblastomas are believed to develop from undifferentiated neural stem cells in the external granule layer of the cerebellum.

In earlier research, Majumder’s group at M. D. Anderson discovered that about half of these tumors overexpress REST, which is not found in most neural cells. "We found that REST is a critical factor in this group of children’s brain tumors," Majumder said, "and that its major function is to keep a group of specific brain stem cells, or progenitor cells, in a state of stemness."

The researchers hypothesize that by maintaining the neural stem cells’ ‘stemness,’ REST prevents their differentiation into normal and distinct types of cells, leading instead to tumor formation. The M. D. Anderson scientists are now exploring whether microRNAs might also play a role in medulloblastomas.

Understanding REST function has applications in both medulloblastoma and embryonic stem cell biology. "Just as blocking REST function has therapeutic potential in medulloblastoma, blocking REST function to allow for differentiation of embryonic stem cells is a potentially critical step in regenerative medicine," Majumder said.

Scott Merville | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.mdanderson.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Two Group A Streptococcus genes linked to 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections
25.09.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity
22.09.2017 | DFG-Forschungszentrum für Regenerative Therapien TU Dresden

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Fraunhofer ISE Pushes World Record for Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells to 22.3 Percent

25.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Usher syndrome: Gene therapy restores hearing and balance

25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

An international team of physicists a coherent amplification effect in laser excited dielectrics

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>