However, this sophisticated technology can also be used maliciously, raising the threat of engineered pathogens. New research published in the online open access journal Genome Biology shows that computational tools could become a vital resource for detecting rogue genetically engineered bacteria in environmental samples.
Jonathan Allen, Shea Gardner and Tom Slezak of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, US, designed new computational tools that identify a set of DNA markers that can distinguish between artificial vector sequences and natural DNA sequences. Natural plasmids and artificial vector sequences have much in common, but these new tools show the potential to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, even when detecting previously unsequenced vectors in microarray-based bioassays.
A new computational genomics tool was developed to compare all available sequenced artificial vectors with available natural sequences, including plasmids and chromosomes, from bacteria and viruses. The tool clusters the artificial vector sequences into different subgroups based on shared sequence; these shared sequences were then compared with the natural plasmid and chromosomal sequence information so as to find regions that are unique to the artificial vectors. Nearly all the artificial vector sequences had one or more unique regions. Short stretches of these unique regions are termed ‘candidate DNA signatures’ and can be used as probes for detecting an artificial vector sequence in the presence of natural sequences using a microarray. Further tests showed that subgroups of candidate DNA signatures are far more likely to match unseen artificial than natural sequences.
The authors say that the next step is to see whether a bioassay design using DNA signatures on microarrays can spot genetically modified DNA in a sample containing a mixture of natural and modified bacteria. The scientific community will need to cooperate with computational experts to sequence and track available vector sequences if DNA signatures are to be used successfully to support detection and deterrence against malicious genetic engineering applications. Scientists would be able to maintain an expanding database of DNA signatures to track all sequenced vectors.
“As with any attempt to counter malicious use of technology, detecting genetic engineering in microbes will be an immense challenge that requires many different tools and continual effort,” says Allen.
For a chimpanzee, one good turn deserves another
27.06.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften (MPIMIS)
New method to rapidly map the 'social networks' of proteins
27.06.2017 | Salk Institute
An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.
Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...
Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.
Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...
Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.
As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...
Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.
With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...
Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine
Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...
19.06.2017 | Event News
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13.06.2017 | Event News
27.06.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
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27.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy