Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

17.03.2008
Fireworks pollute—nitrogen-rich compounds now pave the way for ecological alternatives

You know it is chemistry when it stinks and goes boom—and entrances us. “No other application in the field of chemistry has such a positive association for the general population as fireworks,” says Thomas Klapötke (University of Munich, Germany). “However, pyrotechnical applications are significant polluters of the environment.”

In the journal Angewandte Chemie, Klapötke and his co-author Georg Steinhauser (TU Vienna, Austria) give an overview of how nitrogen-rich compounds and other new strategies could help to limit the danger to the environment.

In addition to fireworks, the field of pyrotechnics includes applications like airbags, signal flares, propellants and charges for civil and military purposes, and the production of nanoporous metal foams for catalysis, hydrogen storage, and insulation.

... more about:
»Agent »Klapötke »compounds »propellant »pyrotechnic

Pyrotechnical materials contain an oxidizer and a reducing agent; depending on the application, binding material, propellant charges, coloring agents and smoke- and sound-producing agents can be added. When a firework or other pyrotechnic is set off, it releases a whole cocktail of poisons damaging to humans and the environment: heavy metals like lead, barium and chromium, chlorates, dioxins, smoke and particulates, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides. “For a long time, the consequences of this were not considered,” says Klapötke, “in the mean time scientists have been working on more environmentally friendly alternatives.” As usual, the main stumbling block is price pressure because the new products must compete with the established ones. Klapötke says, “Lawmakers and other promoters must intercede to address this.”

“Modern developments in pyrotechnics are aimed at the use of nitrogen-rich compounds,” according to Klapötke. In contrast to conventional energetic substances, these do not draw their energy from the oxidation of the carbon backbone, but from their high heats of formation, which are released upon their decomposition. Interesting candidates include derivatives of tetrazoles, five-membered rings made of four nitrogen and one carbon atom, as well as tetrazines, six-membered rings made of four nitrogen and two carbon atoms. Aminotetrazole salts with the nontoxic metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium result in red, orange, violet, purple, and pink colored flames. The trouble is with the color green. Intensive research is being carried out in search of barium-free green-burning salts based on copper compounds.

The class of nitrogen-rich pyrotechnics does not offer only environmentally friendly combustion products; they often offer better color quality and intensity than conventional mixtures. Nitrogen-rich propellants demonstrate improved performance and burn smoke free.

Author: Thomas M. Klapötke, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (Germany), http://www.chemie.uni-muenchen.de/ac/klapoetke/?menu=adress

Title: “Green” Pyrotechnics: A Chemists´ Challenge

Angewandte Chemie International Edition, doi: 10.1002/anie.200704510

Thomas M. Klapötke | Angewandte Chemie
Further information:
http://pressroom.angewandte.org
http://www.chemie.uni-muenchen.de/ac/klapoetke/?menu=adress

Further reports about: Agent Klapötke compounds propellant pyrotechnic

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht New insights into the world of trypanosomes
23.08.2017 | Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg

nachricht New Test for Rare Immunodeficiency
23.08.2017 | Universität Basel

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New insights into the world of trypanosomes

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

New Test for Rare Immunodeficiency

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease

22.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>