Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fullerenes: produce and divide

17.03.2008
The unique complex designed and built from several units by specialists of the Closed Joint-Stock Company “Innovations of the Leningrad Institutes and Enterprises” (St. Petersburg) enables to produce kilograms of fullerenes per day – amazing hollow “globules”, “ellipsoids of rotation” – molecules consisting of several dozens of carbon atoms each.

And most importantly, the complex allows, if necessary, to divide them by the molecular mass, i.e., to single out the most investigated and often used fullerenes, molecules of which consist of 60 and 70 carbon atoms, as well as a fraction consisting of a mixture of heavier fullerene modifications – containing 76, 78, 84, 90 and more atoms of carbon.

It should be noted that relatively not long ago, fullerenes were rather exotic objects, which were actively studied but which were not practically used. But, as the scientists often put it, fullerenes are too perfect to be useless. Indeed, it has turned out that fullerenes per se and materials based on them or even the materials that contain a relatively small quantity of fullerenes or their derivatives in their composition possess various interesting and sometimes exceptionally useful properties. Fullerenes can act as catalysts and cocatalysts in a wide class of organic synthesis reactions, they are able to increase durability and elasticity of materials, fullerenes help to change optical properties of materials – their thermal and electroconductivity.

However, industrial processes require large-scale quantities of these surprising compounds, but the most well-known methods for obtaining fullerenes allow to produce very little of them, and in the mixture with other carbon retrofits – in the so-called fullerene soot along with graphite, amorphous carbon, carbonic nanotubes and other structures. Besides, properties of different fullerenes vary, consequently, to control the final material properties, it is necessary to use only fullerenes of a certain kind. It means that specialists should know how to divede them, this being also done in large-scale quantities, not in laboratory amounts.

... more about:
»Carbon »Complex »extractor »produce »properties »quantities »soot

The complex designed by the authors from St. Petersburg enables to produce fullerenes in significant quantities and to single out their target types, which are practically not contaminated by other carbonic products. The complex contains several basic units. The first unit is a 25-liter reactor per se for obtaining the primary product of fullerene mixture of particularly pure graphite rods – up to 120 grams per hour. This is the so-called fullerene soot, but fullerenes already make 12% to 14% of the mass. For the time being, it is still a mixture, but it mainly consists of the ?-60 fullerenes (65% to 70%), 23% to 27% - are the ?-70 fullerenes, and the rest is the mixture of heavier fullerenes.

The next unit is an extractor. Its task is to isolate the fullerene mixture from soot, the extractor productivity being about 400 grams of fullerene per one five-hour cycle (the extractor useful capacity is 1.8 l). The authors have designed an exclusively productive extractor – it enables to isolate practically all fullerenes from soot (more than 98%).

And finally, the closing unit of the complex is the separator system for obtaining individual fullerenes, first of all, the most demanded and the lightest type of fullerenes – ?-60. With the capacity of 10 l, it enables to produce 100 grams of fullerene per day, the product purity being rather high – 99.5% to 99.9%. Besides, there are special separators for isolation of heavier fractions, if needed. Thus, the complex allows to get absolutely exotic kinds of fullerenes, such as ?-84 and ?-90, they are also very pure but are obtained in lower quantities – however, the demand for them is significantly lower. As for the ?-70 fullerene, the complex manages to produce up to 20 grams of it per cycle, the cycle making two days in this case.

Certainly, this is only a list of main stages of the process developed by the researchers and, accordingly, only main types of required equipment. However, the authors did not only develop, patent and design the entire complex and all fundamental processes, but they even built real, production prototypes, not laboratory samples. The complex is operating, so as much fullerene as needed can be produced now. So far, kilograms of fullerenes are required, but most probably more will be needed in near future.

Olga Myznikova | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

Further reports about: Carbon Complex extractor produce properties quantities soot

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Making fuel out of thick air
08.12.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht ‘Spying’ on the hidden geometry of complex networks through machine intelligence
08.12.2017 | Technische Universität Dresden

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

Im Focus: Successful Mechanical Testing of Nanowires

With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong

Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...

Im Focus: Virtual Reality for Bacteria

An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications

Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...

Im Focus: A space-time sensor for light-matter interactions

Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.

The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Midwife and signpost for photons

11.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

How do megacities impact coastal seas? Searching for evidence in Chinese marginal seas

11.12.2017 | Earth Sciences

PhoxTroT: Optical Interconnect Technologies Revolutionized Data Centers and HPC Systems

11.12.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>