Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Structure reveals how cells 'sugar-coat' proteins

13.03.2008
Biologists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Stony Brook University, and the University of Wurzburg, Germany, have deciphered the structure of a large protein complex responsible for adding sugar molecules to newly formed proteins - a process essential to many proteins' functions.

The structure offers insight into the molecular "sugar-coating" mechanism, and may help scientists better understand a variety of diseases that result when the process goes awry. The research will appear in the March 12, 2008, issue of the journal Structure.

"Proteins perform their functions by interacting at their surfaces with other molecules. So you can imagine that adding or removing sugar molecules will change the protein's surface structure, and therefore its function," said Huilin Li, a biologist at Brookhaven Lab who holds a joint appointment at Stony Brook and is co-corresponding author on the Structure paper. "Messing up this process can lead to the production of malformed proteins that are unable to do their jobs," he added.

The results can be devastating. Failure of glycosylation, as the "sugar-coating" process is known, can lead to a variety of genetic disorders characterized by neurological problems including seizures and stroke-like episodes, feeding disorders, and possibly even some forms of muscular dystrophy.

"We studied one enzyme involved in glycosylation, the one that recognizes the protein sequence and adds the sugar chains to the protein as it is being synthesized by the cell," said William J. Lennarz of Stony Brook University, a coauthor on the paper. "The challenge is that the enzyme, known as oligosaccharide transferase (OT), is large by protein standards, has eight intricately linked components, and sits embedded in a membrane within the cell's protein-manufacturing machinery."

"Membrane proteins, particularly large ones, are very difficult to study structurally," added Li.

So the scientists turned to a technique called cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), which shows great promise in deciphering large membrane protein structures.

"We imaged the purified OT complex by cryo-EM and obtained a first snapshot of the complex by computer reconstruction of the micrographs," said Li, a cryo-EM expert.

In cryo-EM, he explained, samples are frozen in vitreous ice and maintained at cryogenic temperatures (-274° Fahrenheit) using liquid nitrogen while the samples are photographed in the high vacuum of an electron microscope. The sophisticated cryo-EM machine resides in Brookhaven Lab's biology department. Li and his collaborators also measured the mass of the OT complex at Brookhaven's Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) facility.

The structure deciphered by the group helps to explain many biochemical phenomena observed about the enzyme complex over the past two decades. It also offers hints as to how the enzyme performs its various jobs, from recognizing the sugar molecules to be added to the protein, scanning the protein as it is formed to identify the sites where sugars should be attached, and transferring the sugar molecules to the protein at the right positions.

"OT physically associates with the protein translocation channel which moves a protein across a membrane and the cell's protein synthesis machinery, forming an efficient three-machine assembly line for protein translation, translocation, and glycosylation," Li said.

The researchers say further research is needed to illuminate the molecular mechanisms of disorders of glycosylation involving oligosaccharide transferase. For example, they would like to do structural studies of the enzyme at higher resolution in complex with substrates or in association with the cell's protein translocation and protein synthesis machinery. A new facility Brookhaven Lab hopes to begin construction on next year, known as the National Synchrotron Light Source II, would greatly increase the precision of this work.

Karen McNulty Walsh | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bnl.gov
http://www.bnl.gov/newsroom

Further reports about: Brookhaven Complex cryo-EM enzyme glycosylation structure sugar

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cryo-electron microscopy achieves unprecedented resolution using new computational methods
24.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

nachricht How cheetahs stay fit and healthy
24.03.2017 | Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V.

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Argon is not the 'dope' for metallic hydrogen

24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences

Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core

24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>