Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gladstone scientists identify role of tiny RNAs in controlling stem cell fate

06.03.2008
Understanding these key regulatory factors is critical for potential therapeutic use of stem cells

Researchers at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) and the University of California, San Francisco have identified for the first time how tiny genetic factors called microRNAs may influence the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiac muscle. As reported in the journal Cell Stem Cell, scientists in the lab of GICD Director, Deepak Srivastava, MD, demonstrated that two microRNAs, miR-1 and miR-133, which have been associated with muscle development, not only encourage heart muscle formation, but also actively suppress genes that could turn the ES cells into undesired cells like neurons or bone.

“Understanding how pluripotent stem cells can be used in therapy requires that we understand the myriad processes and factors that influence cell fate,” said Dr. Srivastava. “This work shows that microRNAs can function both in directing how ES cells change into specific cells—as well as preventing these cells from developing into unwanted cell types. ”

The differentiation of ES cells into heart cells or any other type of adult cell is a very complicated process involving many factors. MicroRNAS, or miRNAs, seem to act as rheostats or “dimmer switches” to fine-tune levels of important proteins in cells. More than 450 human miRNAs have been described and each is predicted to regulate tens if not hundreds of proteins that may determine cellular differentiation.

... more about:
»Differentiation »Stem »genes »miR-1 »miRNAs

While many ES cell-specific miRNAs have been identified, the role of individual miRNAs in ES cell differentiation had not previously been determined. The Gladstone team showed that miRNAs can control how pluripotent stem cells determine their fate, or “cell lineage” – in this case as cardiac muscle cells.

Specifically, they found that miR-1 and miR-133 are active at the early stages of heart cell formation, when an ES cell is first “deciding” to become mesoderm, one of the three basic tissue layers in mammals and other organisms. Activity of either miR-1 or miR-133 in ES cells caused genes that encourage mesoderm formation to be turned on. Equally important, they caused other genes that would have told the cell to become ectoderm or endoderm to turn off. For example, expression of a specific factor called Delta-like 1 was repressed by miR-1. Removal of this factor from cells by other methods also caused the cells to begin transforming into heart cells.

“Our findings provide insight into the fine regulation of cells and genes that is needed for a heart to form,” said Kathy Ivey, PhD, a California Institute of Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) postdoctoral fellow and lead author on the study. “By better understanding this complicated system, in the future, we may be able to identify ways to treat or prevent childhood and adult diseases that affect the heart.”

Valerie Tucker | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.gladstone.ucsf.edu

Further reports about: Differentiation Stem genes miR-1 miRNAs

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>