Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Molecular alliance that sustains embryonic stem cell state

06.03.2008
Allied proteins known as transcription factors

One of the four ingredients in the genetic recipe that scientists in Japan and the U.S. followed last year to persuade human skin cells to revert to an embryonic stem cell state, is dispensable in ES cells, thanks to the presence of a molecular alliance between a specific group of key proteins known as transcription factors, a research team led by the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) under the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) reports in the current issue of Nature Cell Biology.

The reprogramming factor - Klf4, one of the transcription factors that determine whether a cell's genes are active or silent - has at least two other sibling molecules that will substitute Klf4 to maintain a pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cell state, the GIS-led team said.

Klf4 (also known as gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor or Gklf) belongs to the Krüppel-like factor (Klf) family of transcription factors that regulate numerous biological processes including proliferation, differentiation, development and apoptosis, or programmed cell death.

... more about:
»Embryonic »GIS »Klf »Klf4 »Nanog »Reprogramming »Stem »pluripotent

Since reprogramming mature cells to the ES state may provide a ready source of tissue for biomedical research and clinical treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's and diabetes, several laboratories, including GIS, are trying to better understand and finely tune the reprogramming process.

The team looks for clues for what these reprogramming ingredients are doing in ES cells.

"Klf4 has been a mysterious player among the four reprogramming factors. As taking out Klf4 in ES cells did not have any apparent effects, it is difficult to reconcile why such a potent reprogramming factor has no role in ES cell biology," said GIS scientist Ng Huck Hui, Ph.D., who headed the research team. Other members of the team include researchers from the National University of Singapore and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

The GIS research team found that when Klf4 was depleted, Klf2 and Klf5 took over Klf4's role. To understand the molecular basis of the Klf4 redundancy, the scientists studied the DNA binding and transcription activation properties of the three Klfs and found that the profiles of the three Klfs were strikingly similar.

"Most important, the data showed that the other Klfs were bound to the target sites when one of them was depleted." said Dr. Ng. "These Krüppel-like factors form a very powerful alliance that work together on regulating common targets. The impact of losing one of them is masked by the other two sibling molecules."

For example, Klfs were found to regulate the Nanog gene and other key genes that must be active for ES cells to be pluripotent, or capable of differentiating into virtually any type of cells. Nanog gene is one of the key pluripotency genes in ES cells.

"We suggest that Nanog and other genes are key effectors for the biological functions of the Klfs in ES cells," Dr. Ng said.

"Together, our study provides new insight into how the core Klf circuitry integrates into the Nanog transcriptional network to specify gene expression unique to ES cells.

The way these factors network with key genes in ES cells suggest a way of how Klf4 (along with the other three reprogramming factors) can jump-start the ES cell gene expression engine in adult cells," he noted.

Although these three Klfs are involved in diverse biological roles, their redundant roles have not been previously appreciated.

"Dr. Ng and his colleagues at the Genome Institute of Singapore again have unraveled another intricacy of what makes a stem cell," said Edison Liu, M.D., Executive Director of GIS. "This work brings us closer to a detailed understanding of the genetic components of stemness."

Alan Colman, Ph.D., internationally recognized leader in stem cell research, said, "Klf4 is a transcription factor that came to prominence recently because it was one of four factors used to reprogram somatic cells back to the pluripotent state seen in embryonic stem cells.

"The mystery of the role of Klf4 has been revealed in studies by Huck Hui and colleagues," added Colman, Executive Director of the Singapore Stem Cell Consortium, which like GIS, is part of Singapore's A*STAR. "They show for the first time that Klf4 itself is not needed for the maintenance of the pluripotent state in ES cells; however, this is because the cells have a number of other Klf-like transcription factors that can substitute for Klf4."

For enquiries, please contact the following:

Genome Institute of Singapore
Winnie Serah Lim
Asst Manager, Corporate Communications
Tel: (65) 6478 8013
(65) 9730 7884
Email: limcp2@gis.a-star.edu.sg

Cathy Yarbrough | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.gis.a-star.edu.sg

Further reports about: Embryonic GIS Klf Klf4 Nanog Reprogramming Stem pluripotent

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Cancer diagnosis: no more needles?
25.05.2018 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found
25.05.2018 | Leibniz-Institut für Alternsforschung - Fritz-Lipmann-Institut e.V. (FLI)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Powerful IT security for the car of the future – research alliance develops new approaches

The more electronics steer, accelerate and brake cars, the more important it is to protect them against cyber-attacks. That is why 15 partners from industry and academia will work together over the next three years on new approaches to IT security in self-driving cars. The joint project goes by the name Security For Connected, Autonomous Cars (SecForCARs) and has funding of €7.2 million from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Infineon is leading the project.

Vehicles already offer diverse communication interfaces and more and more automated functions, such as distance and lane-keeping assist systems. At the same...

Im Focus: Molecular switch will facilitate the development of pioneering electro-optical devices

A research team led by physicists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has developed molecular nanoswitches that can be toggled between two structurally different states using an applied voltage. They can serve as the basis for a pioneering class of devices that could replace silicon-based components with organic molecules.

The development of new electronic technologies drives the incessant reduction of functional component sizes. In the context of an international collaborative...

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

In focus: Climate adapted plants

25.05.2018 | Event News

Flow probes from the 3D printer

25.05.2018 | Machine Engineering

Less is more? Gene switch for healthy aging found

25.05.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>