Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

USC researchers discover novel way to develop tumor vaccines

04.03.2008
Researchers find way to regulate immune inhibitor to overcome tumor supression

Researchers at the University of Southern California (USC) have uncovered a new way to develop more effective tumor vaccines by turning off the suppression function of regulatory T cells. The results of the study, titled “A20 is an antigen presentation attenuator, and its inhibition overcomes regulatory T cell-mediated suppression,” will be published in Nature Medicine on March 2, 2008.

“Under normal circumstances, regulatory T cells inhibit the immune system to attack its own cells and tissues to prevent autoimmune diseases. Cancer cells take advantage of regulatory T cells' suppressor ability, recruiting them to keep the immune system at bay or disabling the immune system’s attack provoked by tumor vaccines.” says Si-Yi Chen, M.D., Ph.D., professor of immunology and molecular microbiology at the USC/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Keck School of Medicine of USC. “Our study provides a new vaccination strategy to overcome the regulatory T cells’ immune suppression while avoiding non-specific overactivation of autoreactive T cells and pathological autoimmune toxicities.”

The study identified a new molecular player called A20, an enzyme that restricts inflammatory signal transduction in dendritic cells. When it is inhibited, the dendritic cells overproduce an array of cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules that triggers unusually strong immune responses that cannot be suppressed by regulatory T cells. The resulting hyperactivated immune responses triggered by A20-deficient dendritic cells are capable of destroying various types of tumors that are resistant to current tumor vaccines in mice.

“Through a series of immunological studies, we have identified A20 as an essential antigen presentation attenuator that prevents the overactivation and excessive inflammation of the dendritic cells, which, in turn, restricts the potency of tumor vaccines,” says Chen.

The immune system’s dendritic cells are the guardian cells of the immune systems and play an important role in activating immune responses to recognize and destroy tumor cells. Tumor vaccines have been designed and developed to incite the immune response to cancer cells so that the immune system can attack and destroy cancer cells. However, discovering A20’s role in restricting immune responses has led to a method for blocking tumors from using regulatory T cells for protection.

“Despite intensive efforts, tumor vaccines have been largely ineffective in causing tumor regression in the clinic,” says Chen. “The vaccination approach we developed inhibits the key inhibitor in tumor antigen-loaded dendritic cells to selectively hyperactivate immune responses and to tip the balance from immune suppression in tumor-bearing hosts or cancer patients to effective antitumor immunity.”

This approach is capable of overcoming the regulatory T cells’ suppression mechanism and will allow for a new generation of tumor vaccines to be developed. The next step is to translate these findings into a human clinical trial, says Chen.

Jennifer Chan | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.usc.edu

Further reports about: T cells USC dendritic dendritic cells regulatory suppression vaccines

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nerves control the body’s bacterial community
26.09.2017 | Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel

nachricht Ageless ears? Elderly barn owls do not become hard of hearing
26.09.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The fastest light-driven current source

Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.

Graphene is up to the job

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nerves control the body’s bacterial community

26.09.2017 | Life Sciences

Four elements make 2-D optical platform

26.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Goodbye, login. Hello, heart scan

26.09.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>