Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

1st evidence that nuclear transplantation (’therapeutic cloning’) can eliminate tissue rejection

03.06.2002


Heart ’patches’ and functioning kidney units cloned in cows



Advanced Cell Technology, Inc. (ACT) reported today that nuclear transplantation can be used to generate functional immune-compatible tissues. The research, which will appear in the July issue (cover story) of Nature Biotechnology, by ACT and its collaborators, provides the first experimental evidence that it may be possible to use cloning to generate medically important tissues and eliminate tissue rejection. Heart ’patches’ and miniature kidneys engineered from cloned cells were successfully tested in a large-animal model, the cow, which has a sophisticated immune system similar to that of humans.
"These results bode well for the future of human therapeutic cloning," said Robert Lanza, Vice President of Medical & Scientific Development at ACT, and lead author of the study. "Cloning could theoretically provide a limitless supply of cells and organs for any type of regenerative therapy. Before now, therapeutic cloning as a means of preventing rejection was criticized by some as being purely theoretical – just an idea. This study furnishes the first scientific evidence that cloned tissues can be transplanted back into animals without being destroyed by the body’s immune system. The use in medicine to generate immune-compatible cells using cloning would overcome one of the major scientific challenges in transplantation medicine - namely, the problem of organ and tissue rejection."

The goal of nuclear transplantation is to clone genetically matched cells and organs for transplantation into patients suffering from a wide range of disorders that result from tissue loss or dysfunction. In addition to patients with heart, lung, liver and/or kidney disease, millions more suffer from diabetes, arthritis, AIDS, strokes, cancer and other diseases that may one day be treatable using this technology. It has been estimated that by the year 2010 over 2 million patients will suffer from end-stage kidney disease alone, at an aggregate cost of over $1 trillion dollars during the coming decade.



Although nuclear transplantation could theoretically be used to generate immune-compatible cells and tissues for these patients, numerous studies have shown that animals produced by cloning inherit the DNA in their mitochondria (the organelles that supply energy to the cell) entirely or in part from the recipient egg and not the donor cell. The presence of these foreign genes raises the question whether ’non-self’ proteins in cloned cells could lead to rejection after transplantation and defeat the main objective of the procedure. The Nature Biotechnology paper reports that cloned cells were not rejected in cattle despite the presence of the foreign mitochondrial DNA. The immune system in cattle is relatively complex; therefore, these "preclinical" studies suggest human applications may be possible.

In addition to creating skeletal muscle and heart ’patches,’ nuclear transplantation was used to generate immune-compatible kidney units with the ability to excrete toxic metabolic waste products through a urinelike fluid. The renal units not only survived and functioned as kidneys, but immunological studies carried out both in the transplanted animals and in the laboratory confirmed that there was no rejection response to the cloned tissues.

"This was a study to investigate how the immune system would deal with cloned tissue in an animal model," said Michael D. West, President & C.E.O. at ACT and an author on the paper. "In such an animal model, we judged it appropriate to produce cloned bovine fetuses to generate the needed cells. In the case of human medical applications, we are strongly advocating that the technology should only be used to clone human embryonic stem cells not an actual pregnancy. We, therefore, strongly support Senate Bill S. 2439 promoted by Senators Kennedy, Feinstein, Hatch and Specter that would protect the life-saving uses of cloning technology while banning its abuse in cloning a human fetus or child."


###
The researchers of the paper from Advanced Cell Technology, collaborated with scientists from Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital, Boston; the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; and the University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. The paper’s other authors are Catherine Blackwell of ACT; Anthony Atala, Hoyun Chung, James J. Yoo, Gunter Schuch, and Shay Soker of Children’s Hospital; Peter J. Wettstein, Nancy Borson, and Erik Hofmeister of the Mayo Clinic; and Carlos T. Moraes of the University of Miami School of Medicine.

Advanced Cell Technology is a biotechnology company focused on discovering and commercializing the applications of cloning technology in human medicine and animal science.

Robert Lanza | EurekAlert
Further information:
http://www.advancedcell.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Ageless ears? Elderly barn owls do not become hard of hearing
26.09.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

nachricht eTRANSAFE – collaborative research project aimed at improving safety in drug development process
26.09.2017 | Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The fastest light-driven current source

Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.

Graphene is up to the job

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Goodbye, login. Hello, heart scan

26.09.2017 | Information Technology

The material that obscures supermassive black holes

26.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Ageless ears? Elderly barn owls do not become hard of hearing

26.09.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>