Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

PARP-1 rules! Cornell scientists find how a protein binds to genes and regulates human genome

11.02.2008
Out of chaos, control: Cornell University molecular biologists have discovered how a protein called PARP-1 binds to genes and regulates their expression across the human genome. Knowing where PARP-1 is located and how it works may allow scientists to target this protein while battling common human diseases.

Their research is in a study published today (Feb.8, 2008) in the journal Science.

"This finding was unexpected -- especially since it entails a broad distribution of PARP-1 across the human genome and a strong correlation of the protein binding with genes being turned on," said W. Lee Kraus, Cornell associate professor in molecular biology and the corresponding author in the published study. Kraus has a dual appointment at Cornell's Weill Medical College in New York City. "Our research won't necessarily find cures for human diseases, but it provides molecular insight into the regulation of gene expression that will gives us clues where to look next."

Kraus explains that PARP-1 and another genome-binding protein called histone H1 compete for binding to gene "promoters" (the on-off switches for genes) and, as such, act as part of a control panel for the human genome. H1 puts genes in an "off" position and PARP-1 turns them "on." The new study, said Kraus, shows that for a surprising number genes, the PARP-1 protein is present and histone H1 is not, helping to keep those genes turned on.

... more about:
»Control »Expression »Genome »LIGHT »PARP-1

When human cells are exposed to physiological signals, such as hormones, or to stress signals, such as metabolic shock or DNA damage caused by agents like ultra-violet (UV) light, the cells take action. One of the cellular responses is the production of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), a metabolic communication signal. NAD promotes the removal of PARP from the genome and alters PARP-1's ability to keep genes on, the scientists have found.

Knowing where this component of the genome's control panel -- the PARP-1 protein -- is located, scientists can better understand the effects of synthetic chemical inhibitors of PARP-1 activity, which are being explored for the treatment of human diseases including stroke, heart disease and cancer. Thus, conceivably, when a patient is having stroke, it may one day be possible to use PARP-1 inhibitors as part of stroke therapy, or one day play a role in targeting cancer, says Kraus.

"Think of PARP-1 as a key regulator of gene expression in response to normal signals and harmful stresses," said Kraus. "If you could control most of the traffic lights in a city's street grid with one hand, this is analogous to controlling gene expression across the genome with PARP-1. Under really adverse conditions, you can set all the lights to stop."

Blaine Friedlander | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.cornell.edu

Further reports about: Control Expression Genome LIGHT PARP-1

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Immune Defense Without Collateral Damage
23.01.2017 | Universität Basel

nachricht The interactome of infected neural cells reveals new therapeutic targets for Zika
23.01.2017 | D'Or Institute for Research and Education

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis

23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine

Electrocatalysis can advance green transition

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>