Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Repairing Our Inner Clock with a Two-Inch Fish

21.07.2011
Humans and zebrafish share mechanisms that regulate our circadian system, says TAU researcher

Circadian rhythms — the natural cycle that dictates our biological processes over a 24-hour day — does more than tell us when to sleep or wake. Disruptions in the cycle are also associated with depression, problems with weight control, jet lag and more. Now Prof. Yoav Gothilf of Tel Aviv University's Department of Neurobiology at the George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences is looking to the common zebrafish to learn more about how the human circadian system functions.

Prof. Gothilf and his Ph.D. student Gad Vatine, in collaboration with Prof. Nicholas Foulkes of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology in Germany and Dr. David Klein of the National Institute of Health in Maryland, has discovered that a mechanism that regulates the circadian system in zebrafish also has a hand in running its human counterpart.

The zebrafish discovery provides an excellent model for research that may help to develop new treatments for human ailments such as mental illness, metabolic diseases or sleep disorders. The research appears in the journals PLoS Biology and FEBS Letters.

A miniature model

Zebrafish may be small, but their circadian system is similar to those of human beings. And as test subjects, says Prof. Gothilf, zebrafish also have several distinct advantages: their embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to watch as they develop; their genetics can be easily manipulated; and their development is quick — eggs hatch in two days and the fish become sexually mature at three months old.

Previous research on zebrafish revealed that a gene called Period2, also present in humans, is associated with the fish's circadian system and is activated by light. "When we knocked down the gene in our zebrafish models," says Prof. Gothilf, "the circadian system was lost." This identified the importance of the gene to the system, but the researchers had yet to discover how light triggered gene activity.

The team subsequently identified a region called LRM (Light Responsive Model) within Period2 that explains the phenomenon. Within this region, there are short genetic sequences called Ebox, which mediate clock activity, and Dbox, which confer light-driven expression — the interplay between the two sequences is responsible for light activation. Based on this information, they identified the proteins which bind the Ebox and Dbox and trigger the light-induction of the Period2 gene, a process that is important for synchronization of the circadian system.

To determine whether a similar mechanism may exist in humans, Prof. Gothilf and his fellow researchers isolated and tested the human LRM and inserted it into zebrafish cells. In these fish cells, the human LRM behaved in exactly the same way, activating Period2 when exposed to light — and unveiling a fascinating connection between humans and the two-inch-long fish.

Shedding new light on circadian systems and the brain

Zebrafish and humans could have much more in common, Prof. Gothilf says, leading to breakthroughs in human medicine. Unlike rats and mice but like human beings, zebrafish are diurnal — awake during the day and asleep at night — and they have circadian systems that are active as early as two days after fertilization. This provides an opportunity to manipulate the circadian clock, testing different therapies and medications to advance our understanding of the circadian system and how disruptions, whether caused by biology or lifestyle, can best be treated.

Prof. Gothilf believes this model has further application to brain and biomedical research. Researchers can already manipulate the genetic makeup of zebrafish, for example, to make specific neurons and their synapses (the junctions between neurons in the brain) fluorescent — easy to see and track. "Synapses can be actually counted. This kind of accessible model can be used in research into degenerative brain disorders," he notes, adding that several additional research groups at TAU are now using zebrafish to advance their work.

George Hunka | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aftau.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Designer cells: artificial enzyme can activate a gene switch
22.05.2018 | Universität Basel

nachricht Flow of cerebrospinal fluid regulates neural stem cell division
22.05.2018 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Designer cells: artificial enzyme can activate a gene switch

22.05.2018 | Life Sciences

PR of MCC: Carbon removal from atmosphere unavoidable for 1.5 degree target

22.05.2018 | Earth Sciences

Achema 2018: New camera system monitors distillation and helps save energy

22.05.2018 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>