Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Repairing Our Inner Clock with a Two-Inch Fish

21.07.2011
Humans and zebrafish share mechanisms that regulate our circadian system, says TAU researcher

Circadian rhythms — the natural cycle that dictates our biological processes over a 24-hour day — does more than tell us when to sleep or wake. Disruptions in the cycle are also associated with depression, problems with weight control, jet lag and more. Now Prof. Yoav Gothilf of Tel Aviv University's Department of Neurobiology at the George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences is looking to the common zebrafish to learn more about how the human circadian system functions.

Prof. Gothilf and his Ph.D. student Gad Vatine, in collaboration with Prof. Nicholas Foulkes of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology in Germany and Dr. David Klein of the National Institute of Health in Maryland, has discovered that a mechanism that regulates the circadian system in zebrafish also has a hand in running its human counterpart.

The zebrafish discovery provides an excellent model for research that may help to develop new treatments for human ailments such as mental illness, metabolic diseases or sleep disorders. The research appears in the journals PLoS Biology and FEBS Letters.

A miniature model

Zebrafish may be small, but their circadian system is similar to those of human beings. And as test subjects, says Prof. Gothilf, zebrafish also have several distinct advantages: their embryos are transparent, allowing researchers to watch as they develop; their genetics can be easily manipulated; and their development is quick — eggs hatch in two days and the fish become sexually mature at three months old.

Previous research on zebrafish revealed that a gene called Period2, also present in humans, is associated with the fish's circadian system and is activated by light. "When we knocked down the gene in our zebrafish models," says Prof. Gothilf, "the circadian system was lost." This identified the importance of the gene to the system, but the researchers had yet to discover how light triggered gene activity.

The team subsequently identified a region called LRM (Light Responsive Model) within Period2 that explains the phenomenon. Within this region, there are short genetic sequences called Ebox, which mediate clock activity, and Dbox, which confer light-driven expression — the interplay between the two sequences is responsible for light activation. Based on this information, they identified the proteins which bind the Ebox and Dbox and trigger the light-induction of the Period2 gene, a process that is important for synchronization of the circadian system.

To determine whether a similar mechanism may exist in humans, Prof. Gothilf and his fellow researchers isolated and tested the human LRM and inserted it into zebrafish cells. In these fish cells, the human LRM behaved in exactly the same way, activating Period2 when exposed to light — and unveiling a fascinating connection between humans and the two-inch-long fish.

Shedding new light on circadian systems and the brain

Zebrafish and humans could have much more in common, Prof. Gothilf says, leading to breakthroughs in human medicine. Unlike rats and mice but like human beings, zebrafish are diurnal — awake during the day and asleep at night — and they have circadian systems that are active as early as two days after fertilization. This provides an opportunity to manipulate the circadian clock, testing different therapies and medications to advance our understanding of the circadian system and how disruptions, whether caused by biology or lifestyle, can best be treated.

Prof. Gothilf believes this model has further application to brain and biomedical research. Researchers can already manipulate the genetic makeup of zebrafish, for example, to make specific neurons and their synapses (the junctions between neurons in the brain) fluorescent — easy to see and track. "Synapses can be actually counted. This kind of accessible model can be used in research into degenerative brain disorders," he notes, adding that several additional research groups at TAU are now using zebrafish to advance their work.

George Hunka | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aftau.org

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>