Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Recovery Of Dopamine Function Emerges With Recovery From Smoking

01.08.2016

A new study in “Biological Psychiatry” reports that smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine, a chemical implicated in reward and addiction, return to normal three months after quitting. The normalization of dopamine systems suggests smoking-related deficits are a consequence of chronic smoking, rather than a risk factor. These findings raise the possibility that treatments might be developed that normalize the dopamine system in smokers.

According to first author Dr. Lena Rademacher, Postdoctoral fellow at the University of Lübeck, Germany, a major challenge in understanding substance-related disorders lies in uncovering why only some individuals become addicted.


Figure 1. Interindividual group differences in dopamine synthesis capacity

(Rademacher et al.)


Figure 2. Significant intraindividual changes in dopamine storage capacity

(Rademacher et al.)

Researchers think some people could possess a trait that predisposes them to addiction, and suspect that brain circuits involving dopamine may be involved. Drugs of abuse release dopamine, and addiction to nicotine is associated with abnormalities in the dopamine system. But researchers are uncertain if smoking induces those abnormalities or if they already exist and contribute to risk of nicotine addiction.

Senior author Dr. Ingo Vernaleken, Professor at RWTH Aachen University, Germany led a team of researchers examining dopamine function in chronic smokers before and after long-term cessation.

The researchers used a brain imaging technique called positron emission tomography to measure an index of the capacity for dopamine production in 30 men who were nicotine-dependent smokers and 15 nonsmokers. After performing an initial scan on all participants, 15 smokers who successfully quit were scanned again after three months of abstinence from smoking and nicotine replacement.

The initial scan revealed a 15–20% reduction in the capacity for dopamine production in smokers compared with nonsmokers. The researchers expected this impairment to persist even after quitting, which would suggest it could be a marker of vulnerability for nicotine addiction.

“Surprisingly, the alterations in dopamine synthesis capacity normalized through abstinence,” said Rademacher.

The role of dopamine in vulnerability toward nicotine addiction cannot be excluded, but the findings suggest that altered dopamine function of smokers is a consequence of nico-tine consumption rather than the cause.

Dr. John Krystal, Editor of “Biological Psychiatry”, noted the implications of these findings for developing better ways to help smokers trying to quit. “This study suggests that the first three months after one stops smoking may be a particularly vulnerable time for relapse, in part, because of persisting dopamine deficits. This observation raises the possibility that one might target these deficits with new treatments.”

The article is "Effects of Smoking Cessation on Presynaptic Dopamine Function of Addicted Male Smokers" by Lena Rademacher, Susanne Prinz, Oliver Winz, Karsten Hen-kel, Claudia A. Dietrich, Jörn Schmaljohann, Siamak Mohammadkhani Shali, Ina Schabram, Christian Stoppe, Paul Cumming, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Yoshitaka Kumakura, Mark Coburn, Felix M. Mottaghy, Gerhard Gründer, and Ingo Vernaleken (doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.009). It appears in Biological Psychiatry, volume 80, issue 3 (2016), published by Elsevier.

Journalists wishing to interview the authors may contact Lena Rademacher at Rademacher@snl.uni-luebeck.de.

Biological Psychiatry is the official journal of the Society of Biological Psychiatry, whose purpose is to promote excellence in scientific research and education in fields that investigate the nature, causes, mechanisms and treatments of disorders of thought, emotion, or behavior. Biological Psychiatry is one of the most selective and highly cited journals in the field of psychiatric neuroscience. It is ranked 5th out of 140 Psychiatry titles and 11th out of 256 Neurosciences titles in the Journal Citations Reports® published by Thomson Reuters. The 2015 Impact Factor score for Biological Psychiatry is 11.212. Media contact: Rhiannon Bugno, biol.psych@utsouthwestern.edu

Rüdiger Labahn | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Programming cells with computer-like logic
27.07.2017 | Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard

nachricht Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics
27.07.2017 | Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Physicists Design Ultrafocused Pulses

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.

Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Programming cells with computer-like logic

27.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Identified the component that allows a lethal bacteria to spread resistance to antibiotics

27.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Malaria Already Endemic in the Mediterranean by the Roman Period

27.07.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>